There are different systems of government in use all over the world. The presidential system also called the congressional system is basically a republican system where the head of state who is also the head of government leads an executive branch that is independent and different from a legislative branch. Often titled “president”, the executive cannot dismiss the legislature under any circumstances since it is not responsible to it. Arguably, presidential systems are diverse and numerous and there are laws governing them (Rosenfeld 45). The president who is also the head of state has a fixed term of office by law and elections are regularly held at set times and therefore nothing can under any circumstance trigger a vote of no confidence on him/her. Notably, there are instances when a sitting president can be removed from office for instance, if found to have broken a law.
The executive is a unipersonal branch where cabinet members must deliver and carry out policies of the legislative and executive branches and that’s the reason the cabinet serves at the pleasure of the president. A parliamentary system on the other hand is a system of democratic governance. In this system, the executive branch is held accountable to the executive, legislature and legislative branches that hold it accountable. The head of state is different from the leader and head of government. Unlike the presidential system, a parliamentary system’s executive branch is wholly dependent on all the indirect and direct support of the other branches such as the legislature. The executive system is chosen dependently within the system unlike the presidential system. In parliamentary systems, the cabinet and the prime minister exercise executive power daily as the head of state gives orders (Kasuya 114).
Presidential systems pretty much need approval from the legislature of nominations of the executive to the judiciary, the cabinet and other governmental posts on a lower level. A president can directly give authorization to various organs in the government and even direct members of the executive, judiciary, the cabinet and any employee or officer of the executive branch, although he/she cannot dismiss or direct judges. Other duties of the president are commuting and pardoning sentences of convicted criminals. Always politically active, presidents in a presidential system can experience influence of power if their opponents or supporters have positions in the legislature that are dominant. Two important things about presidential systems stand out, one is the fixed term and the other is his/her strong claim to legitimacy, democratic and even plebiscitarian (Samuels 453). Some heads of states are lucky enough to gain office with quite a small proportion of the majority vote as compared to other premiers who seemingly govern smaller cabinets.
The chief of the executive branch is the governor who is elected by the public to a four year term every four years. A governor is responsible for all executions of public programs and laws that are funded and enacted by the legislative branch. The governor has the authority to appoint commissioners who act as heads of departments. The executive branch consists of the governor, attorney general, secretary of state and various commissioners in various departments who assist in organizing various functions that fulfill coherent responsibilities such as budgeting, purchasing and personnel. A governor cannot serve for more than two consecutive terms.
Compared to the parliamentary system, the presidential system is better in a number of ways; to start with, presidential systems are democratic systems where citizens vote for in their leader of choice. The world today as a joint organ of countries, is in much need of a sound and effective system of administration which can manage numerous responsibilities effectively and justify things in a proper way for the smooth execution of the numerous affairs of nations. That’s the reason a credible system of administration is needed to take decisions and represent the entire nation in all areas. In the parliamentary system people can choose the political party they like of their choice. The next step is for the parliamentary people to decide on whom among the party members will be, the Prime Minister or the parliamentary leader therefore, members of the public in the parliamentary system are not directly involved in making the final decision of choosing their leader.
Though the parliamentary system and the presidential system have their own limitations and advantages, I feel that the ideal system of administration is the presidential system since it offers a more organized and disciplined structure that is responsible for making decisions although the process aspects such as decisiveness and speed appear to have no substantial purpose. Ideally, human beings on different lateral need the ideal leader who is able to make the right decisions that are in the best interests of the general public, who enjoys full faith and shows the people the right way to follow. A good illustration of such a system is the presidential system that is elected by the people like that in America.
In terms of decision making, the presidential system provides more speed and flexibility. By establishing as two parallel powers the legislature and the presidency, the presidential system put emphasis on the president’s powers. The presidential system is a flexible system of administration that provides more legitimacy to the power of the elected leader since it allows citizens to choose their leader directly. The president is given enough backup to take progressive and bold decisions, his/her decisions are entirely based on best interest of the public and that’s the reason why providing he/she with all essential powers is of paramount importance. A presidential system is a true illustration of democracy. Many nations have opted for presidential systems in order to fully exercise their democratic rights. In the US for instance, the governing system in place is the presidential system which accepted by a vast majority for its efficiency.
There are numerous benefits of having a presidential system of governance:
Direct elections - To start with, the president is elected by the people through a direct and open election; the legislature and the president are separate bodies that offer balanced power. A president serves a given span of time such as a maximum of two terms four years each, therefore people in these nations have some consistency as they are aware of the period of time their leader will be serving office (Skach 76).
Stability – by virtue of a fixed term, a president can provide more stability as compared to a prime minister who at any time can be dismissed. Different nations have a set duration in which the president sits in office; in the United States for instance the maximum number of terms is two.
Separation of powers – the presidential system establishes the legislature and the presidency as two structures that are parallel. This is arrangement is convenient to the people as it allows all structures to check and monitor the other thereby preventing abuses.
Decisiveness and Speed – Various people have the assumption that a president with strapping powers usually can enact changes pretty fast (Shane 214).
The presidential system of governance is a flexible system where the president can easily administer and is free to make major decisions at any time without assistance or support from the public. There is a clear delineation of power in a presidential system that allows on both branches, effective set of checks-and-balances which separates the legislature from the executive. It is a system where all the three branches of the government are equal theoretically. A presidential system carries double-edged swords as the presidential system’s track record is by and large one of the not-so-stunning or stunning success based on one’s view. Different from the parliamentary system, stability is present in presidential form.
One advantage of the presidential system is that people can openly know who to blame if things go wrong therefore, government and efficiency are akin to oil and water. Efficiency is not key in the operations of a government, safeguarding rights is the key thing (Orentlicher 117). Generally, supporters claim four basic advantages for a presidential system, separation of power, decisiveness, direct mandate, stability and speed. Arguably, presidential systems can only be found in democratic contexts. Demands of the people can best be met only with an effective presidential system which is one attribute that makes the system the best for the future of a country.
Rosenfeld, Michel, and András Sajó. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law. Oxford, U.K: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Kasuya, Yuko. Presidents, Assemblies and Policy-Making in Asia. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Internet resource.
Samuels, David, and Matthew S. Shugart. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Skach, Cindy. Borrowing Constitutional Designs: Constitutional Law in Weimar Germany and the French Fifth Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Shane, Peter M. Madison's Nightmare: How Executive Power Threatens American Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Orentlicher, David. Two Presidents Are Better Than One: The Case for a Bipartisan Executive Branch. , 2013. Print.