The destructive testing of the materials is often used to find out the material properties. The mechanical property is based on the parameters obtained from the material testing. The testing involves tensile testing, hardness testing, creep testing, and impact testing. The non destructive testing involves interaction of energy with the materials. It is necessary to decide the behaviour of the material by knowing the property of the materials. The structure of the material at the atomic level will guess the characteristic of the material at the atomic level. The materials fall into the category of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric. The materials are arranged into groups based on their chemical composition. The different materials will have different properties. The selection of the material entirely depends on the type of applications; choosing materials for the particular applications. The metals cover two third of the all the elements and about 24% of the mass of the planet. The metals are useful properties including the strength and ductility, high melting point, electric conductivity and toughness. The ceramic’s are traditionally inorganic i nature; it is prepared from the powered materials. The ceramics are blend or light weight. It exhibits the strength and properties. The ceramic can be formed to serve as electrically conductive materials. The atoms are held by the chemical bonds. The most common chemical bonds and ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. The covalent and ionic are much stronger than the metallic bond.
The tensile strength varies with the density. For some low value of density in the graph, starts with the decreasing point. The sudden increase in the graph has been found at the value of 6025. The value then the tensile value reduces for the density 7125 (Kg/m3). The tensile strength reaches a peak value at the density point 18700 (Kg/m3); then it faces the sudden decrease in the value.
The specific strength of the graph varies with the specific stiffness. Initially, the specific strength increases with the specific stiffness then the sudden decrease in the value occurred in the specific stiffness point of 3.734E+01. The increase in the specific strength occurred for the specific value of the specific stiffness. The graph ends with a decrease in the value with the gradual increase in the end.
4. What is the advantage of the specific strength data when compared with a graph of Tensile Strength versus Density?
The specific strength known as tensile strength is divided by its density. The materials with ahigh specific strength are typically the fibers are used to make the composite materials. These fibers include titanium, magnesium, etc. The specific strength can be found with the help of weight ratio. It is used to find the strength of the materials for the textile industries.
5.1 Young’s Modulus
The young’s modulus is a measure of stiffness of materials. It is defined as stress along the axis to the strain. The linear portion of stress strain curve is young’s modulus.
5.2 Yield Strength
The yield strength is the stress of the materials that begin to deform elastically. The yield point is the vital when defining the component. It is important in many materials production technique.
When the external force is applied to the objects, it makes changes in both shape and size. The ratio of extended length to the original length is called strain. The ratio of the two lengths measured in meters.
The transformation of the body from the reference configuration to the current configuration; some deformations are caused by the external loads. The strain deformation is terms as a relative displacement.
6. Describe how would Youngs Modulus as a material selection criteria in the design or manufacture of a product or building structure.
The youngs modulus resistance and materials has an eleatic deformation. The stiffness has thehigh elastic young’s modulus, and it changes its shape. The stiffness of the materials reauires the high load of elasticity. The stiffness means how far it deforms under the given load; it depends on the youngs modulus.
The atomic radius value increases when the cohesive force is at the range of 322 (Kj/Mol), but a gradual decrease in the atomic radius is noticed when the cohesive force is at 416, and then the graph linearly increases, when the cohesive force increases linearly. It was clear that the atomic radius behaves differently with the cohesive force. The atomic radius value depends on the effect of the cohesive force (Adhesion Vs Cohesive, 2007).
The atomic radius value increases when the density is at the range of 5000 (Kg/m3), but the gradual decrease in the atomic radius is noticed when the density is near 1000, and then the graph linearly increases, when the density increases linearly. It was clear that the atomic radius behaves differently with the density (Adhesion Vs Cohesive, 2007). The atomic radius value depends on the effect of the density.
The young’s modulus decreases, when the melting point is 660*c; the young’s modulus increases linearly, when the melting point is at 1530*c, then the value decrease to 1080. The number in the value increases, when the young’s modulus is at 450. The value of the melting point differs with the different values of the young’s modulus. Young’s modulus was different with the different values of melting point (Adhesion Vs Cohesive, 2007).
The thermal conductivity increases with the electrical resistivity. There is a break down point. The break down point occurs when the thermal conductivity value is 80.2. After this breakdown point, the thermal conductivity decreases, and it continues till the value of 401. After some point of time, the electrical resistance increases with the thermal conductivity.
The cohesive energy increases at the value of 1000. A sudden decrease in the cohesive energy takes place at the value of 1600. The value of the cohesive energy suddenly increases and reaches up to 3600.
- Using the data of the Cohesive Energy v’s Melting point graph approximate the melting of Titanium (Ti) if its cohesive enrgy if 470 kJ/mol.
The melting point may be of between 400-500*c; this is the melting point of titanium.
- Crystal Structure
A crystal structure is the unique structure of the atom molecules. A crystal structure is a high order structure. The asymmetric unit is translated in to the unit cell. The patters are located in the points of a lattice. The crystal structure is described in terms of a unit cell. The unit cell is the small box of micro atoms in 3D (Ferrous Metal, 2013).
The cohesive force is the intermolecular force that has the tendency in the liquids to resist separation. These attractive forces exist between the molecules of the same substance. The cohesive molecules are caused due to the mutual attractions. The gas has weak cohesion force. The water has both cohesion and adhesion properties [Strength of materials, 2013].
The melting point depends on the pressure;is usually know by its standard pressure. The melting point of the substance is being measured by the oil bath method. The measurements are made continuously by the operating process. This process allows for most frequent measurements as the samples.
- The following table lists four metals. Fill in the data for heat of fusion and a cohesive energy.Draw a graph of heat of fusion ( y axis) against cohesive energy ( x axis). Comment on the data in the graph.
When the heat fusion increases the cohesive energy increases, the cohesive energy linearly increases with the heat fusion. The heat fusion and a cohesive energy of tungsten are very high; it is to have high melting point. The heat fusion energy of iron holds the good value that copper, aluminium, and mercury [Materials, 2013].
The heat fusion increases with the different values of the cohesive energy. The heat fusion value increases with the increase in the cohesive energy. Between the increases of one interval to the other, the cohesive value remains constant.
Material property can be decided by the properties of the materials too. The materials exhibit different properties. The selection of a particular material depends on the application it is used. There are some ways to test the materials to find the properties, like tensile test, stiffness test, property test, specific stiffness test, etc. This is the test used to find out the properties of the materials. The materials are used for various applications. This analyzed about the properties of the various materials in a different environment. The properties varies with structure.
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