In 1905, Einstein determined that the laws of physics apply in the same manner to all non-accelerating observers. He also determined that the speed of light in a vacuum was not dependent on the motion of all observers. Einstein called this, the law of special relativity. This theory introduced a new framework for physics by proposing new concepts of time and space. Einstein argued that the time-space around the earth could not only be distorted but also twisted due to the planet’s rotation (Einstein, 1950). Newton quantified the force between two objects (gravity) by his three laws of motion. In spite of this quantification, Newton’s laws assumed that gravity exists as an innate force that acts over distances (Einstein, & Lawson, 2010). Einstein sought to prove that Newton’s laws apply in the constraints of time and space. His assertion was based on three spatial and time based dimensions- mass, momentum and energy. The interactions of these three resulted in the bending of the time-space coordinate system (Einstein, 1949). Einstein claimed that contrary to what Newton asserted, gravity was simply a movement of an object along the path of least-energy in the space-time curvature.
Newton and Einstein played critical roles in the shaping the social views of their societies. Einstein relocated to settle in the USA after Adolf Hitler assumed power in 1933 (James, 2003). As a professor at the University of Berlin, Einstein feared that Hitler’s unorthodox leadership would hamper his studies to advance his relativity theories. Einstein instead alerted the then US president Franklin Roosevelt on Germany’s plans to develop an atomic bomb. He advised the US on how to make an atomic bomb and his name has been frequently mentioned as key among the people who worked on the Manhattan project (space.com, 2012). Though he denounced taking part in the use of nuclear fission in the development of weapons used in world war two, Einstein’s contribution however subtle cannot be underestimated.
Both of Einstein’s and Newton’s theories have found numerous applications in modern day life. Newton’s laws of motion have for instance been used to compute for force, speed and other related aspects in different fields such as engineering which is a core component of social and economical welfare. In 2004, NASA launched a project “the gravitational Probe B”. The satellite was precisely calibrated, and it caused the axes of gyroscopes to drift slightly over time. This result coincided with Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
Einstein’s theories have also found numerous applications in electromagnetism. In affirmation of Einstein’s theories, the electromagnetic radiation of an object has been shown to be stretched slightly inside of a gravitational field. This is commonly referred to as the gravitational redshift and has been most evident in case of car sirens. When the sound waves emanate from a siren an as the vehicle moves closer to a given object, the sound waves get compressed, and as the vehicle moves away the waves are stretched out or redshifted (space.com).
Astronomers also combine the discoveries by Einstein on relativity to study the effect of light around massive objects such as a black hole. When light bends around a massive hole, it acts as a lens for objects that lay behind it. Astronomers have used this phenomenon to study galaxies and stars that lay behind massive objects.
The history and developments in optics owe their origins to Newton’s theory of color. Newton showed that when white light strikes a prism it is dispersed into different colors. This has helped explain why colored light stays the same regardless of reflections and scatterings. Though Newton borrowed some ideas from Galileo in the development of the telescope much of modern day developments in telescopes owe their advancements to the Newtonian telescope . Modern day scientists have combined as aspects from the discoveries by Newton and the modifications from Einstein’s theory of relativity to develop powerful satellites that orbit different terrestrial bodies. These satellites take and relay photographs besides collecting crucial information such as weather patterns and the existence of life elsewhere. Satellites are at the core of the telecommunication industry in the world. Telecommunications is at the heart of social interactions through the internet leading to globalization. To this end, the contributions of both Newton and Einstein cannot be underestimated.
In addition to these contributions, the discoveries by Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein will continue to influence economic and social lives as scholars build on them through advancements in education and technology.
Einstein, A., & Lawson, R. W. (2010). Relativity: the special and general theory (Reprint ed.). Peoria, Ariz.: Ancient Wisdom Pub..
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James, I. (2003). "Singular scientists". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39.
King, H. C. (2003). The history of the telescope. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications.