Inability of individuals to ensure that they have a normal body weight results into the development of eating disorders. This occurs because of actions like starvation and binge eating, which are focused on weight gain avoidance. In most cases, eat disorders have an impact of destroying body image of individuals by making it inaccurate and obscured such that it influences an individual’s self-evaluation (Hansell, & Damour, 2008). Disorders, which are associated with substance use, develop because of erroneous and negative relationships that are established among users and drugs. These relationships lead to excessive substance use, which becomes addictive and uncontrollable, as well as having negative consequences to an individual. Some individuals develop personality disorders, which are based on personality traits that are regarded as rigid and extreme traits to an individual (Hansell, $ Damour, 2008). These personality traits have the ability of causing impairment to an individual.
Classification of Eating Disorders
Eating disorders include Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa (that occurs often in two types- non-purging and purging type), and the unspecified eating disorder. Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder that is associated with abilities of individuals to refuse or fear having a normal body weight. As such, people tend to fear weight gain and eat less or diet. This results in the distortion of an individual’s body. Bulimia Nervosa eating disorder involves various activities of an individual, which are focused on reducing weight gain (Goldstein, & Volkow, 2002). This includes engagement in excessive exercises, binge eating, fasting, and use of laxatives among others. Non-purging type Bulimia Nervosa involves binging that is followed by excessive physical exercises or fasting as a means of weight gain avoidance. On the other hand, purging type Bulimia Nervosa is associated with binge eating that is accompanied by laxatives use and vomiting as means of weight gain avoidance. The unspecified eating disorder is a classification of other eating disorders, which cannot be categorized as Bulimia Nervosa or Anorexia Nervosa. This category includes individuals who focus on body shape and weight maintenance.
Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral, Biological, Psychodynamic, Family Systems, and Socio-cultural Components for various eating disorders
Eating disorders at cognitive-behavioral perspective indicate that dysfunctional thinking influences behavior, which is evidenced in various eating disorders. As such, eating disorders develop because of unrealistic thoughts on food consumption, which influence eating behavior of individuals. Further, neurotransmission and hormones influences the development of eating disorders among individuals. These occur together with emotions of people who desire to eat food as a way of relieving anger, boredom, anxiety, sadness, and stress.
Classification of Substance Use Disorders
Substance use disorders are related to the ability of substances to implicit negative impacts to users. Users tend to continue irrespective of the negative impacts (Fauman, 2002). Consequences of substance use include loss of control of substance and compulsive use of the substance. This occurs when an individual takes large amounts of substances. The established drug-user relationship is essential in order to address the issue of substance abuse. Emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors play a significant role in an individual’s substance abuse abilities. Emotional linkage includes maladaptive coping while cognitive and behavioral factors lead to stress and anxiety reduction among users. On the other hand, substance abuse may take place because of biological factors such as family systems and genetic predispositions.
Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral, Biological, Psychodynamic, Family Systems, and Socio-cultural Components for various substance use disorders
Cognitive-behavioral relationship indicate that substance abuse occur as people focus on stress and anxiety reductions. However, emotional component may make an individual to engage in substance abuse as a means of getting rid of situations, which are emotional in life. In addition, family systems may contribute significantly towards substance abuse among individuals.
Sexual and Gender Disorders
Sexually based disorders include paraphilia, gender identity disorder, and sexual dysfunctions (Goldstein, & Volkow, 2002). Paraphilia is a disorder that is characterized of sexual preferences and relationships that are bizarre and deviant. Gender identity disorder is associated with an individual’s hatred towards the inherent sexual relationship. This disorder causes intense discomfort in an individual and it affects the relationships, which an individual establishes in society. Sexual dysfunction disorder is associated with impairment of the sexual abilities of an individual. These include lack of normal sexual desires, orgasm, and arousal.
Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral, Biological, Psychodynamic, Family Systems, and Socio-cultural Components for various sexual and gender disorders
Cognitive-behavioral aspects for the gender and sexual based disorders are comparable to disorders such as sexual arousal, fear, and phobia, which develop as a result of responding to a stimulus that is not desirable. At emotional level, individuals with gender identity disorder tend to develop an aspect of feeling secure. However, individuals with sexual disorders tend to feel insecure most of their time.
Personality disorders of individuals are categorized into three clusters. These clusters are A, B, and C (Goldstein, & Volkow, 2002). For the category of cluster A, odd or eccentric paranoid, schizoid disorder types are found. Personality types of disorders of cluster B are dramatic, unpredictable, and emotional disorders. These disorders are also regarded as narcissistic, borderline, histrionic and antisocial. One the other hand, Cluster C involves disorders, which are regarded as dependent, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive (Fauman, 2002).
Personality disorders develop at the onset of behavioral and cognitive experiences of an individual in life. As such, the surrounding environment determines how an individual develops his or her personality. Emotional trauma may also influence personality disorder development. This includes the influence of biology on the environmental surrounding of an individual.
Personality, substance abuse, sexual, and eating disorders have a similarity in terms of their impacts on the body of an individual. This is because cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and biological factors influence the development of these disorders. However, the level and magnitude of disorder development varies from one individual to another based on the relationship, which is established between the individual and the disorder-causing agent. As such, disorder relationship between user and cause should be investigated in order to institute an effective control mechanism.
Fauman, M. A. (2002). Study guide to DSM-IV-TR. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric
Goldstein, R. Z., & Volkow, N. D. (2002). Drug Addiction and Its Underlying
Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 1642-1652.
Hansell, J., & Damour, L. (2008). Abnormal psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.