The title of the article “Evaluation of Hand Washing Program for 2nd graders” describes the type of the study, the major variable and the population to which it applies. It can be inferred from the title that the purpose is to assess and evaluate the hand washing program for the second graders. However, the variable can be inferred from the behavior change and early interventions among children so that they will develop the hand washing as a well-practiced habit (Tousman, Arnold, Helland, Roth, Heshelman, Castaneda, Fischer, O'Neil, & Bileto, 2007).
A. The purpose of the statement of the study is to determine if a learner-centered hand washing intervention program will be able to increase the hand-hygiene behaviors of 2nd grade students, where the parents and teachers will be asked to evaluate the behavior of the students between Week 3 and Week 4 of the study (Tousman et al., 2007).
B. The problem or purpose is significant in nursing because the school nurses will be able to develop or coordinate peer education programs in school in order to make the program more effective.
C. The purpose statement include key concept/variables and the study of population in interest because it is used to determine the hand-hygiene behavior of 2nd grade students in order to improve the hand washing behavior among the students; and to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the program (Tousman et al., 2007). The demographic variables are age and gender and the present program of second grade students from the Rockford Public School System.
3.) Conceptual/Theoretical Frameworks
A. The conceptual/theoretical framework or model was developed to predict the behavioral change in an adult asthma self-management program that is in connection to the hand-hygiene behavior of children. The behavior change is the major consideration that requires involvement of the participant, together with the structure of intervention and the technique of intervention.
B. A model/framework was clearly identified in this study as the design of the present hand-washing program on the model of health and behavior change developed by Tousman and Zeitz in 2003 (Tousman et al., 2007).
C. The conceptual/theoretical model/framework was clearly developed because it has explained the behavior change as the relevant factor in relation to the involvement of the participant in the intervention and the technique used in the intervention (Tousman et al,, 2007).
D. The model/framework was clearly linked to the research purpose or hypothesis because it is related to the participant involvement in the intervention, the structure of the intervention and the techniques used in the intervention to make the model of health behavior connected to the hand hygiene behavior of the second graders.
4.) Review of Literature
A. The literature review was not organized with appropriate subheadings to present it logically to the readers. The recent literature that was cited is 2006. The article was published in 2007. The review was thorough because it has presented the effectiveness of the one-session intervention that will be helpful to improve the hand washing behavior of the elementary school children (Tousman et al., 2007).
B. The majority of the references cited in the article came from primary sources. Almost all the sources are peer-reviewed articles from nursing journals and medical journals.
C. The researcher was cite supporting as well as opposing studies based on the absenteeism rates that were included in the study during Week 3 and Week 4 interventions.
D. The review was provided with a conclusion with a brief summary where it was shown that the result of the parent and teacher evaluation showed that the program was effective in changing the hand washing behavior of second graders (Tousman et al., 2007).
5.) Research Questions and Hypothesis
A. The questions/hypothesis were clearly stated because it was able to determine the hand-hygiene behavior of 2nd grade students in order to improve the hand washing behavior among the students; and to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the program (Tousman et al., 2007).
B. The questions/hypothesis are logically linked to the research purpose/problem based on the parent evaluation survey questions as well as the teacher evaluation survey questions.
C. The hypothesis in the research is a valid hypothesis because it was identified that the key to the meaningful behavior change among the second grade student lies on the early intervention of children to make hand-washing a well-practiced habit in life (Tousman et al., 2007).
6.) Research Design
A. The research design that was used was non-experimental.
B. The research design is nonexperimental because it does not require random assignment of subjects and did not use laboratory controls to obtain valid and reliable outcomes.
C. The type of design was appropriate for the variables and purpose of the study because it made use of the qualitative method in the form of case study by using a series of activities such as tabular evidence, census data and conducting surveys, interviews, focus groups and observations made on the behavior of the second graders.
D. There was no intervention that was used because the study was meant to identify the behavior of the school children in the hand washing program implemented in the school and there was no treatment or intervention required for this study.
E. The two threats to internal validity are selection bias and instrumentality. There might be selection bias in choosing the participants, which may affect the outcome of the study. The change in the instrumentality can change the result of the experiment or the study.
The inability to get the data on absenteeism due to illness may have the tendency to confound the results of the study (Tousman et al., 2007). Based on the study of Guinana, McGuckin, & Ali (2002), although the research focused on hand washing, it did not address the effect on absenteeism, or the effect of hand washing education on absenteeism. Scholarly reports revealed that mandatory hand washing programs reduces the acute gastrointestinal disease among elementary school-aged children (Guinana, McGuckin, & Ali. 2002).
F. The two threats in the external validity are situation and reactivity of the second grade students. The situational factors include the location, time, scope and extent of the study. The reactivity shall refer to the cause and effect relationship between the subjects and the settings or situations of the study.
7. ) Subjects, Sample/Population
A. The target/ accessible population is clearly described to include only second graders.
B. The only inclusion/exclusion criteria that were the fact that the program was implemented in 19 second grade classes in 7 schools in the Public School System of Rockland, Illinois (Tousman et al., 2007).
C. The method used in the selection of the subject was clearly described in the program.
8.) Data Collection Procedures/Instruments
A. The steps in the collection of data were clearly described as well as the instruments and scales that were used. The materials that were used to collect data are through questionnaires, surveys and evaluation of parents and teachers of the students.
B. The instruments and the scales that were used measured the study’s variables determine the hand-hygiene behavior of 2nd grade students in order to improve the hand washing behavior among the students; and to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the program (Tousman et al., 2007). The demographic variables are age and gender and the present program of second grade students from the Rockford Public School System.
C. The instruments have adequate validity and reliability for use in the study through the use of survey questions, observations and monitoring.
9.) Ethical Responsibility
A. There was no evidence that will indicate that the human subject review was discussed.
B. The issues on the confidentiality and the anonymity of the second graders were addressed in the study and not personal information was revealed.
C. The subjects were not exposed to physical danger or harm on the study because the study did not entail risk but only for the purpose of assessing and evaluating the hand washing program for the second graders.
10.) Results and Findings
A. The reports included descriptive statistics and the characters of the subject were described in terms of age and gender.
B. There were tables and charts used in order to present and summarize the statistical information to make the results easier to understand.
C. The research questions and hypothesis were answered separately by the researchers.
D. The explanations for the significant and non-significant findings were discussed thoroughly and in detail.
E. There were no unexpected findings because it was shown that the key to the successful program is the effective leadership and teamwork of the volunteers to develop the hand washing program.
11.) Implications and Findings
A. The limitation was described due to the inability to get the data on absenteeism due to illness may have the tendency to confound the results of the study (Tousman et al., 2007).
B. The researcher has stated that the results support previous studies to determine the hand-hygiene behavior of 2nd grade students in order to improve the hand washing behavior will improve the hygiene of school children (Tousman et al., 2007).
C. There was no generalizations made that were unwarranted on the basis of the sample study that was used.
D. The recommendations for nursing practice predict the behavioral change in an adult asthma self-management program that is in connection to the hand-hygiene behavior of children. This finding is relevant to improve the behavior in the hygiene of the participants.
Guinana, M., McGuckin, M. & Ali, Y. (2002). “The effect of a comprehensive handwashing
program on absenteeism in elementary schools”. Association for Professionals in
Infection Control and Epidemiology. 30(4):pp.217-220.
Tousman S., Arnold, D., Helland W., Roth, R., Heshelman, N., Castaneda, O., Fischer, E.,
O'Neil, K. & Bileto, S. (2007). “Evaluation of a hand washing program for 2nd-
graders”. The Journal School of Nursing. 23(6): pp.342-8.