There are several ill-impacts of smoking and hence, one needs to find out appropriate intervention techniques. In this report, there have been three research articles utilized for the purpose of identifying the correlation between smoking and intervention techniques. The methods (N=5892) included conversing with teenagers to find out their habits of smoking and getting relevant information on smoking from them. The results determined the frequency of smoking on different days of the week. In addition, it also found that the intervention techniques were useful to make these teenagers quit smoking.
Keywords: teenage smoking, intervention techniques, frequency of smoking, nicotine metabolism, addiction
Teens Smoking: Preventers and Intervention
Smoking is one of the dangerous addictions found amongst the people in today's society. However, it has been noticed that, even children and teenagers have started smoking. They are addicted to smoking, intake of drugs and other such malicious activities, due to which, they face several healthcare issues at an early age. It is therefore, recommended to provide solutions to them so that they can quit smoking. The thesis of this paper shall discuss on assessing the teen smoking patterns, different ways to make the teenagers quit smoking and finally, providing the results of these discussion.
In order to narrow down the research and discussion, this report will be focusing three researches on smoking that discuss how the teenagers get addicted to smoking, how it becomes difficult for them from the healthcare perspective, and finally, discusses the different intervention techniques that can assist these teenagers to overcome the smoking issue.
Authors: Baileya, S.R., Jeffery, C.J., Hammera, S.A., Brysona, S.W., Killen, D.T., Ammermanb, S., Robinsona, T.N., and Killen
Hypothesis of First Study: The first research tried to find out the different smoking patterns, since it can help in overcoming the smoking issue for these teenagers.
Authors: Rubinstein, M.L., Shiffman, S., Moscicki, A.-B., Rait, M.A., Sen, S., and Benowitz, N.L.
Hypothesis of Second Study: The second research focused upon the correlation between smoking behaviour and the nicotine metabolic rate.
Authors: Branstetter, S.A., Hornb, K., Dino, G., and Zhang, J.
Hypothesis of Third Study: The third research focuses upon finding out cost-efficient, effective and acceptable smoking interventions for the youth and teenagers.
The first similarity that was observed amongst all the three articles was the approach to solve the issue of teen smoking. All the three researches confirmed that teenage smoking is dangerous for health for the teenagers and hence, appropriate intervention techniques should be deployed to overcome this issue.
The second similarity that was observed was in the methodological approach to the given issue of teenage smoking. Despite the difference in the sample size, the key approach to review the smoking habits, smoking views and smoking discussion was same in all the researches. However, the style of asking the same question was different, but the objective of getting the desired information was same for all.
The third and final similarity was in the way of obtaining the desired results for a given sample audience. There were quantitative techniques deployed so as to significantly judge the end results. And, it was on the basis of these results that, the intervention techniques were suggested to the respective target audience.
The key difference was the hypothesis and the objective of all the research. One research wanted to know the smoking habits, while other focused on different intervention techniques. The third focused upon knowing how the nicotine metabolic rate will relate with the smoking behaviour.
The sample size, the testing of the sample for a given research and the research objective were different in all the research articles. However, their ultimate objective was to find out the appropriate intervention technique that could help in solving this issue.
The scope of all the three researches were different, and hence, researchers need to work in different directions for future considerations.
The method that was utilized for the first purpose included getting of the data and information from the smokers through a randomized trial.
For the second research, the participants were asked to attend 9-hour hospital visits, wherein the research staff researched various facts about them. These participants were also paid $100 for a given 9-hour visit.
In the third research, the sample was obtained from 5892 teen smokers. They voluntarily participated in this research for the given controlled study of American Lung Association program between 1998 and 206. The total number of males accounted for 45%, while females accounted for 55%.
Results and Findings
This research focused upon the research pattern mentioned that, the consumption of smoking by the people from Sunday to Thursday was around 8-13 cigarettes per day; whereas, the consumption increased a lot from Friday to Sunday and it went up to 11-19 cigarettes per day. Thus, a huge variability can be observed amongst the people that were smoking. The smoking patterns changed a lot and hence, people need to be treated accordingly.
This research confirmed that, the hypothesis stated by them regarding slower metabolizers that they smoked less cigarettes got wrong. In fact, they smoked more as compared to others. Hence, it also concluded the fact that, the adolescent smokers were increasing their smoking activities and hence, it was necessary to recommend them to stop smoking.
This research mentioned that the reducers were similar to that of quitters; however, there were even people that had increased their smoking activities. The different intervention techniques can prove to be useful in quitting smoking for these people.
Looking from the results, we can at least conclude that, the number of teenagers that smoke has increased than before. The people of a given society seem to be having no idea about the negative impacts of smoking on the teenagers. There are several different patterns observed of smoking, and hence, it is necessary to take proper steps in this direction to prevent the teenagers from smoking (Baileya et al., 2012).
Teenagers have no idea regarding what type of addiction they are getting into; they smoke the cigarettes for the purpose of fun and entertainment. They have no idea regarding the ill-effects of smoking the cigarettes. It even seems that their parents are either not aware of it or they seem to be careless on this matter (Branstetter et al., 2009).
Hence, it is necessary to apply any of the intervention techniques that can actually help in overcoming the smoking issue of the teenagers. We can find several healthcare interventions that will guide and educate the parents and their children on how to quit smoking. Further, it has been noticed that, the role of the healthcare professionals is important regarding this issue, since they can guide and educate the people of the given society. They can discuss several ways through which smoking can be avoided by the teenagers in the future.
The teenagers first of all should be educated and should be informed regarding the negative impacts of smoking. It will help them to overcome the habits of smoking. It will thus ensure that, a given teenager is well aware of the negative impacts of smoking, Further, the parents should be provided education on smoking through different webinars and sessions (Rubinstein et al., 2012).
They should be alarmed on this issue so that they can take quick steps on this issue. Further, students should be provided with certain practical demonstration on how smoking is dangerous for the health. There are several videos and podcasts available that can actually make the teenagers understand about this issue.
Conclusion & Suggestion for Further Studies
Smoking is a dangerous issue and should be avoided at all costs. This report has provided discussion on the three research articles. It has provided valuable information on how smoking can affect the health of a given teenager from several perspectives. It has also provided intervention technique on the basis of which a given teenager can quit his smoking. It will help him to improve his life from the health perspective. However, to improve the present research, future researches should be directed so as to improve the intervention techniques and find more parameters that could directly address the smoking patterns and smoking habits.
Baileya, S.R., Jeffery, C.J., Hammera, S.A., Brysona, S.W., Killen, D.T., Ammermanb, S., Robinsona, T.N., & Killen, J.D. (2012). Assessing teen smoking patterns: The weekend phenomenon. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 120, 242-245.
Branstetter, S.A., Hornb, K., Dino, G., & Zhang, J. (2009). Beyond quitting: Predictors of teen smoking cessation, reduction and acceleration following a school-based intervention. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99, 160-168.
Rubinstein, M.L., Shiffman, S., Moscicki, A.-B., Rait, M.A., Sen, S., & Benowitz, N.L. (2012). Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers. Addiction, 108, 406-412.