What is business ethics? From a justifiable point of thought, it can be argued as; a generation of a flow of ideas that can be applied in the workplace to differentiate and determine what is right from what is wrong. In addition, they guide a worker to different activities that are morally upright in the workplace and those that satisfy the employer as well as the client. In broad terms, business ethics is the steps provided in the workplace that needs to be followed to the later and adhered to by the employees for the achievement of set goals. On the other hand, diversity can be said to be a channel of specializing and diversifying resources into something new. This can be either a project or activity that proofs to is worth investing on. In the case study provided, it is clearly shown how diversity has taken toll in different parts of the world. A perfect example is the distinct difference between United Kingdom and India. Alicia Jones put it straight by analyzing the physical features that are located in Bombay compared to the ones from the hometown. The type of the transportation system that she is accorded immediately she lands to Bombay and the type of treatment that she is exposed to is of a higher class. This shows that diversity is quite distinct between the two nations. One experiences setbacks in terms of development and the other one is much ahead in terms of development.
Theory of Amorality
Adams Smith developed this theorem. In his book; ‘The Invisible Hand’, the author developed a theorem known as; theory of morality. This theorem was meant to guide workers in their various working destinations about the idea behind ethical behavior and its applicability in the working places. The theory argues that; workers ought not to apply the idea behind ethical behaviors in various working places. In this case, study, morality is evident from the way diversity has taken effect between the two nations. The residents of Bombay still practice moral values as their culture dictates them to do so. The United Kingdom citizens have grown out of the morality circle. They are civilized, they practice what other developed countries practices and believes in. Olivia Jones is a perfect example of a person who has grown out of the morality circle. She is surprised by the setting and ways of life of people in Bombay. The mode of dressing of the residents of Bombay is a new factor in her life that she sees for the first time in her life. This diversity in terms of civilization supports this theorem.
Theory of Moral Unity
This theorem seeks to criticize the theory that was presented by Adams smith. It argues that; business operations ought to be judged by the general ethical standards of a given societal setting, and not simply by the use and application of permissive standards. These permissive standards are considered as scapegoats for quality among the team members in the workplace. Therefore, the general ideology behind this theorem is that; ethical codes of conducts can be applied and used in the workplace but not to the extreme end of altering the profit margins of the organization. When Olivia jones first steps in the downtown area of Bombay, she realizes the inferior setting of residents of this area. Everyone seems to be in a cooperation circle despite his or her moral governance. The moral unity that is prevailing at this given place is so unique that these residents are only specific in their economic ventures. They have opened up a cloth industry that allows manufacturing of clothes and exporting them. This case study supports this theory of moral unity; despite the fact that, the citizens of Bombay are uncivilized, one thing is characteristic out of them. They are development oriented, and they are after making profits for their own livelihood and the livelihoods of their families.
Deontological (Duty-Based) Theory
Immanuel Kant brought this theorem forth. This theorem is based on a categorical imperative; ‘a given individual act determines the extent of the general outcome of the society depending on the outcome’, therefore, such an individual must act with a sound knowledge that bears in mind the extent of applicability of that theorem. According to this theorem, if a given act is wrong, it cannot be applied on the general execution procedures due to its destructive nature. The citizens of Bombay can be said to be categorically imperative. Olivia jones categorizes them as being morally upright and this guides them towards achieving their profit margins in the clothing industry. Despite their moral gratitude, the residents of Bombay have an obligation of ensuring that they invest on any business activity for their own welfare and the welfare of their families.
Criticism of Deontological theorem;
- It argues that ethical tasks can be argued, but in practice, it is too complex to articulate this. An example is the practice of confidentiality, sometimes; we might be forced to lie in order to safeguard the truth, therefore, this theorem lacks a basis.
It holds the view that; a cost-benefit analysis case scenario should be undertaken to determine the extent of the given ethical action that is practicable in nature. This will help to determine the social costs as well as the social benefits that are associated with the action. In normal terms, the rightful action is the one that will give satisfactory higher returns, i.e. maximum benefits with the lowest possible costs associated with it. This action helps to uphold the status of the society as a whole.
Olivia jones is categorical on her evaluation of economic status of the downtown region of Bombay. The socio-economic status of this region according to her is way above the standard level that is prevailing at that specific region. She evaluates that, if these people sell their clothing products at $13.59, then, perhaps they could realize a much higher profit margin than their selling price of $12.59. Diversity is also categorical from her views; she sees a land of opportunity in investing in the clothing products that these people produce. She considers the retailing price of the organization that she is working for; they make barely a profit ratio of 56%. Therefore, this theory seems to support her evaluation and analysis.
Criticism of this theorem;
- It is hard to undertake a cost-benefit analysis for an action or practice that is done
- Injustice to the entire community may be brought by an action whereby, promoting the action in terms of the returns got from it is detrimental to some individuals in the society. An example of this is; out of suspicion; the manager can be forced to fire a worker due to suspicion of an action, in reality, the worker is innocent. Due to the simple fact that the manager wants to set an example to the rest, then, it will be unjust to dismiss the worker off his duties due to the mere fact of suspicion.
The Rights Theory
Every citizen of a given nation is entitled to some specific rights by virtue of the supremacy of the constitution. Violation of these rights amounts to the jail term.
Legal rights; this is guaranteed for by the provision of the constitution, the right to vote, the right of movement among others are all provided for in this segment.
Moral rights; they are globally applicable to every living human being. This does not hold any legal grounds whatsoever. They are derived form a moral standard system irrespective of any given legal framework, for example, freedom from physical harm.
Olivia Jones ascertains that, the residents of Bombay seem to shifts towards upholding their moral rights. This defines their way of lives and what they believe and practice. These people trust that; it is only the available moral values specifications, which guides and upholds their livelihoods. Legal rights serve as a supplementary tool for their own welfare.
Criticism of this theory;
- Conflict of interest among the wide provision of legal and moral rights
- Litigation in the hierarchy of rights is performed in US to determine the justification of a given claim.
Generally, ethical behaviors need to be followed strictly in the working areas irrespective of the population setting and timing. Business ethics is important for day-to-day operations. It fosters the smooth cooperation of experts in the field as well as upholding the organizations set goals and objectives. The residents of Bombay seem to belief in business ethics but bnot diversity. They believe that, their moral practice aids them in making robust profits for their own good and that of their families.