One of the major quality improvement goals is to improve the nation’s ability to prepare for, prevent, respond to and even recover from a major health incident. This goal is currently based on a set of national priorities set out by the National Health Security of the United States of America (NHSS). The NHSS targets at building community resilience as well as strengthen and sustain emergency health systems (healthypeople.gov). The NHSS has identified several objectives to improve preparedness in the offering of health services. These are development and maintenance of a workforce that can respond to national health security (Barr, 23). In addition the NHSS has ensured timely and effective communication systems in response to health emergencies.
This quality improvement goal could be improved by incorporating basic first aid training and emergency response in the school curriculum. This will increase the knowledge base and develop more personnel capable of responding to emergency health situations. In addition, the government and private healthcare providers can invest in advanced technology systems which speed up the response to health emergencies. The development on more capacity to offer emergency to fulfill the increasing demand for emergency services is the surest way to prevent the escalation of diseases and medical conditions into life threatening situations.
How Environmental and Behavioral Risks Contribute to Cancer
Healthypeople.gov has a goal to reduce the number of new cancer cases, illnesses, disability and death caused by cancer (healthypeople.gov). Cancer is the second most fatal disease in the United States after heart diseases. Currently there are about 12 million survivors in the world. Going into the future, healthcare institutions need to establish mechanisms to fight the cancer menace. The government can increase the number of cancer centers conducting research and treatment as well as equip them sufficiently with advanced cancer diagnostic and treatment equipment to combat the threat of cancer. In addition to setting up new cancer centers, the government can collaborate with cancer centers from other countries in order to enhance its human ability to fight cancer.
There are several disparities on the prevalence of cancer among various ethnic and racial groups. Some causative factors are associated with low socio-economic status, poor healthcare based on education levels, income, occupation, geographic location among other factors.
Researchers have confirmed that that most cancers are preventable if people reduce indulgence in risk factors. The commonest risk factors are use of tobacco products, obesity, lack of physical exercise and poor nutrition. Exposure to ultraviolet light also causes some types of cancer such as skin cancer (Kovner, James & Stevens, 12).
Some types of cancer are preventable through vaccination. Getting vaccinated against human papilloma virus and the hepatitis B virus significantly reduces chances of cervical cancer among women. Cancer is curable when it is discovered in early stages. Breast cancer can be discovered through a mammography, colorectal cancer through colonoscopy and fecal occult blood testing while a pap smear can help in the discovery of cervical cancer. Vaccination, exercise, avoidance of excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption could contribute significantly in reducing the prevalence of cancer worldwide.
Mortality and morbidity data in Nevada
Mortality refers to the length of life while morbidity refers to the quality of life. These two are the main indicators of the effectiveness of various healthcare interventions by the government and the private care givers. The average life expectancy of Americans is 78.2 years (worldlifeexpectancy.com). This figure varies from state to state due to various socio-economic factors such access to healthcare, the environment and the varying lifestyles of the people in different states.
The factors that influence mortality and morbidity are clinical care which contributes 20% in to the morbidity and mortality levels of Nevada. Clinical factors include access to care and the quality of care received. Social and economic factors such as employment, income levels, family and social support, education and community support contribute 40% to mortality and morbidity levels in Nevada. Health behaviors such as unsafe sex, alcohol and tobacco use as well as exercises contribute 30% of Nevada’s mortality and morbidity. Physical environment factoring in built environment and environmental quality contributes the least to mortality and morbidity at 10%.
The leading causes of death and morbidity in most of the United States are almost similar though they vary slightly. In Nevada the leading cause of death is heart diseases with more than 1524 people having succumbed to the diseases in 2012. Others include lung cancers and diseases at 1600 and suicide at 300 people. The leading causes of mortality among women in Nevada are coronary heart diseases, lung disease, lung cancer, stroke, breast cancer, hypertension, kidney diseases, alheizmers, ovarian cancer and diabetes mellitus. The leading causes of death among men are relatively similar to those in women with coronary heart disease as a leading cause of mortality. Other diseases include lung diseases and cancers, stroke, hypertension, suicide, kidney diseases, colon-rectum cancers, diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer. Mortality in infants and teens is due to congenital anomalies, low birth weight, influenza & pneumonia, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, lung diseases, kidney diseases, lymphomas and suicide.
" Cancer - Healthy People." Healthy People 2020 - Improving the Health of Americans. N.p.,n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.
Barr, Donald A.. Health disparities in the United States: social class, race, ethnicity, and health.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. Print.
Kovner, Anthony R., James Knickman, and Steven Jonas. Jonas & Kovner's health care delivery in the United States. 10th ed. New York: Springer Pub., 2011. Print.
"NEVADA CAUSES OF DEATH BY AGE AND GENDER." World Life Expectancy. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.