Describe how the role of the traditional manager is changing
Leadership is defined as a form of social influence in a society in order to lead a group or cluster of people to accomplish a common task. Any person who leads a group is called a leader.
The role of a traditional manager is largely to lay stress on current goals. These goals are more or less internally focussed objectives such as budget, sales target, profitability or market share. He is largely reactive in his performance modes such as decision making and implementing plans. Today’s modern day manager is changing in his performance reaction. Unlike the traditional manager, the modern manager doesn’t act after there is a need for change.
Differentiate between different leadership theories: trait, behavioral, contingency, and "the new leadership."
Just like management theories, leadership is also associated with a couple of theories. These include the following:
1. Trait theory: This theory is principally based on the characteristics of several different leaders including the successful as well as the non-successful ones. The aim of this theory is to predict the effectiveness among leaders. The final list of traits is then compared with those of other great leaders in order to judge the feasibility of failure or success
2. Behavioural contingency: This theory explains that there is no best way of leading others and that the effectiveness of leadership styles differ in each situation. Leaders who are able to display great leadership spirit and success at one place may not be successful at some other place due to different factors or circumstances around them.
3. New Leadership: These days’ old assumptions and old modes of leadership are no longer in effect and there is a huge mess with change. Art of leadership is the new form of leadership which has emerged. The new leadership excellence is the use of Inter-personal terns as the wide range of suppliers and customers have redefined what is called the internet connection of leadership.
Describe how people centered management is different from traditional management theories
With people cantered development, the basic aim is to increase the international development that lays focus on improvising local communities decision making, social justice and self-reliance. It makes one understand that economic enhancement contributes effectively towards human development and encourages all kind of changes in environmental, social and political practices.
Discuss power bases from which leaders operate, and how subordinates can upwardly influence their leaders.
Basically, bases of power relate to the various techniques which leaders and managers make use of in order to influence their employees. While studying or analyzing the basis of power, it is the concept of authority which must be duly considered. Both of these are interrelated set of activities related to the behaviour of the superiors over subordinates. In brief, power and authority are entangled, with power being the capability to work on things or get it done by others by ordering while authority on the other hand is the base of power.
Explain why groups and teams are key contributors to organizational effectiveness. Groups and teams are considered as key contributors because of the ability of group people to throw ideas to one another, to accomplish huge tasks not achievable at individual levels, to pin point others mistakes and to correct them and to add on a huge knowledge base with multiple minds working on the same issue.
Identify the different types of groups and teams that help managers and organizations achieve their goals.
There are two types of groups and teams namely formal groups and teams formed by a team of members and informal groups and teams formed by members of the organization. The one formed by managers include command groups, cross cultural teams, task forces, cross functional teams, virtual teams, research and development teams and top management teams. Those formed by organizational members include internet groups and friendship groups.
Explain how different elements of group dynamics influence the functioning and effectiveness of groups and teams.
Different elements of group dynamics include pooling, sequencing and mutual dependence or reciprocity. Explain why it is important for groups and teams to have a balance of conformity and deviance, and a moderate level of cohesiveness. Conformity and deviance are equally important to achieve a high end performance from the group. Often members confirm to various norms in order to get rewards and imitate the members just because according to them this is a right approach.
Describe how managers can motivate group members to achieve organizational goals and reduce social loafing in groups and teams. When a particular group does a good job performance wise, they can avail good rewards in the form of special recognitions and monetary basis. Social loafing on the other hand is the human tendency to input fewer efforts in a group than at individual level. By identifying and accounting individual efforts, maintaining an appropriate group size and laying stress on the valuable contributions of individual members one can reduce social loafing.
Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it.
Motivation is basically a psychological force which is responsible of determining the path of a person’s behaviour inside an organization and the level of comfort and persistence at individual levels.
Describe from the perspectives of expectancy and equity theories what managers should do to have a highly motivated workforce.
The level of motivation will be high there would be a common belief among workers that high levels of efforts will convert into high performance and thus the desired outcomes.
Explain how goals and needs motivate people, and what kinds of goals are especially likely to result in high performance.
Goals figure out what is more significant to the firm and thus worker groups should always be encouraged to foster action plans to achieve a set of goals.
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