Bias is the tendency of an individual or a group of individual to be more included to a presented idea or any other alternative. A bias can be used in a lot of things. It is however primarily used in judgment and decision making situations such as when the facilitative communication was first introduced to children with autism.
Causation is also usually termed as Causality. Causation is the distinguishable relationship between two events that have either occurred consequently or subsequently. It is simply the correlation between two events regardless of how and when they occurred. In the video, the experts tried to identify the possible causes why children with autism experience difficulties in communication and they did that by causation.
Confidence interval is an interval estimate that is most commonly used in statistics, generally to describe the reliability of a data or a group of subjects. An example used in the video was when they tried to estimate how many children with autism will benefit from the new method of communication they are introducing.
A statistical figure that represents the relation, that is, the possible similarities and differences, between two statistical variables, regardless whether they are positively or negatively related. This can be used in checking whether a hypothesis is correct or wrong as seen in the video; the experts reviewed whether the improvement in communication was due to the intervention used.
Unidirectional and Bi-directional Relations
In a unidirectional relation, one side knows the correlation and the other side does not. In a bi-directional relation, both sides know the correlation between any two or more statistical variables. In the video, they tried to administer the intervention to two populations; the first one through unidirectional relations means and the other one by bi-directional means. This can be used to eliminate possible errors that may occur during the study.
An experiment is something that is done to confirm something. Everything done in the video was basically an experiment and the results of it will definitely effect every decision that will be made regarding that topic in the future.
A hypothesis is an educated guess that is usually used in researches and studies to initially assume something and prove whether that assumption or hypothesis is valid or not. In the video for example, they hypothesized that facilitative communication can change most, if not all, standards in treating children with autism.
It is the process of testing either the validity or reliability of a hypothesis. Hypothesis testing, just like in the video, is usually done through an experiment.
Involves the use of particular statistical formulas wherein a sample data is used to calculate the value of a statistic variable.
A research study design that deals with the qualitative aspects of a discipline or subject. Often contains few to now numbers.
A research study design that deals with the quantitative or numerical aspects of a discipline or subject.
This is a method of acquiring samples or subjects in a non-purposive way; that is, getting a sample population from a relatively larger population in a random way. In the video, this sampling method was not used because the researchers could only accept subjects with autism.
The consistency or substantiality of a statistical figure which can either is a measure, a hypothesis, or even a principle.
A term used to define a collection of process whose ultimate goal is to prove, justify, discover, something. In the video, they used research to test or discover the effectiveness of the facilitative communication.
Sampling is the process of selecting a suitable sample, usually a population using a particular sampling method. The type of sampling can usually influence the method of analyzing a data, thus affecting every decision that the researchers will make.
It is a method of solving a problem that usually starts with the identification of a problem and ends with a generalization and conclusion. Most commonly used method of solving a common or a research problem.
The purpose of or the importance of something or of doing something or the reason why a research or study is being conducted.
Validity is the correctness or the rigorousness of a statistical variable. This is often paired with reliability as variables often need to be reliable and valid first before being considered.
A variable can be anything; it can be a symbol, a set of something, or even an expression. One or more variables are often used in statistics so that a clearer view of the correlation between the used variables can be seen.