Short Answer Questions
– Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.
The similarities between assessments across the three age groups lie in the fact in all the cases it is important to have the parent or guardian around when doing the assessment. The babies do not communicate, and the preschool and school children may give inaccurate information on certain issues. Moreover, they feel more secure in the presence of their parents( Bashers, 2002).
Differences include the fact that the toddlers and preschool cannot give information at all. However, the certain information may suitably be obtained from children, other than parents or guardians. Thus, children who have reached school-going age would provide certain information required during their assessment more easily. Such information include the questions asked during the assessment of the reproductive pattern.
– Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.
Examination of a child is much different from that of an adult. When examining a child, the clinician must consider the age and developmental level of the child. Initially, the clinician must take his time to get acquainted with the child. This will help earn trust from the child. Since children like play, it is important to use techniques that promote play for infants and children. It is important to find out the best place to perform the examination, either the lap of the mother, on the lap or the examiner or any other place that would be suitable and comfortable for the child( martin, 2004).
When performing the examination, it is important to be systematic. However, when the child’s behavior is distractive, the clinician should be flexible enough to accommodate the behavior of the child. Children sometimes become very stubborn and disruptive when performing a clinical procedure, including just an assessment. The hands and arms may be examined first, since they are less intrusive. Thereafter examine other areas which have less intrusion, and then areas which are highly intrusive should be examined last. Such regions include the nose, the mouth and the ears. Finally, determine which examination may cause the baby to cry and so should be done last. The heart and the abdomen may cause a lot of irritability from the child and therefore should be performed last.
Examination of an adult is much easier. The systematic head to toe examination process is followed, since the patient is not likely to cause any resistance. Adults may be examined on the couch or any comfortable surface( Jarvis, 2003).
Brashers, V. L. (2002). Clinical application of pathophysiology: Assessment, diagnostic
reasoning and management. (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Jarvis, C. (2003) Examination & Health Assessment, 4th Edition. NY
Martin, S. M. (2004). Health Assessment: new perspectives, American Journal of Nursing, 94(8), 56.