Any business organization of whatever size will at some point in time have to fill up vacant positions. The company has two options, that is, either it will recruit from within the organization or hire people from outside. External selection of job applicants is one of the challenges the human resources department face. There are several methods of hiring externally. The first method of external recruitment is through advertisements. Advertisements for job vacancies can be done through print and electronic media like newspapers, radio, television, industry publications and the internet. One advantage of this method of recruitment is that the vacancy is announced immediately. Also, it is relatively inexpensive considering its larger coverage and the fact that several job vacancies may be announced in a single advertisement. It is advantageous to the company to use print and electronic media because more people will get to see the advertisement; thus, there is a greater possibility of hiring the best candidate. Some employers prefer newspaper advertisements because it allows them to make blind advertisements which give them a low profile. The major drawback of print and media advertisements is that the composition of the advertisement should be carefully worded to make it effective. Especially for printed advertisements, the company must make sure that no EEO laws are violated. Another disadvantage is it is a longer process.
The second type of external recruitment is through professional or trade associations. Members of these associations enjoy the privilege of recruitment and placement services. These organizations have newsletters, publications and regular meetings where the job vacancy can be announced. Getting applicants through this method is advantageous for the company because it can easily access information about the candidate through the association.
Another method of external recruitment is through the use of employment agencies. These agencies are also called “head hunters”. These agencies charge a fee to either the job applicant or the organization looking for qualified applicants. Some employment agencies known as executive search firms, specialize in helping companies look for high-level managerial and professional talents. An advantage of using these agencies is that they specialize in particular employment areas which make the selection process easier for companies. A major concern of this type of recruitment is that some head hunters “pirate” employees from the company’s competitor which others may find unethical.
Another form of external recruitment is through employee referral. Upon learning of a job vacancy in the organization, some employees inform their friends or relatives and persuade them to apply for the position. The strength of this type of hiring is that it is inexpensive and it is a way of obtaining loyalty among employees. An ethical issue which confronts this type of recruitment is that it often results in unfair hiring practices.
Campus recruitment is another type of external recruitment. Some organizations send representatives to universities and colleges to recruit college degree individuals. With this method, organizations are able to choose from what schools they prefer their employees to come from. Schools are also able to recommend their best students to companies which makes the screening and selection process shorter. The main ethical concern of this form of recruitment is some organizations may be biased as to their preference of schools from where their employees will come from.
Some organizations rely on job fairs in recruiting employees. Aside from being a good source of potential applicants, it also gives a favorable image for the company.
Some employees are recruited by companies from unsolicited walk-in applicants. Because of the good reputation of some organizations, people go to them directly to apply in case there is a job opening. This is advantageous for the company because it takes minimal recruitment efforts.
With the internet era comes a new form of external recruitment known as cyber recruiting. Companies use their websites and other internet sites to recruit employees. The recruitment and selection activities are already done online. The strength of this method is its inexpensive feature.
There are several advantages of external recruitment over internal recruitment. External recruitment brings in people from outside the organization; thus, new ideas are brought into the company which may help the company to remain competitive. People with a wider range of experience are often hired through external recruitment which makes it beneficial to the organization. Internal recruitment limits the search for job applicants within the organization while external recruitment makes it possible to have a larger pool of applicants; therefore, the chances of finding the right person for the job increases. External recruitment sometimes results in motivating the current employees to perform better in the hope of being promoted in case there is a job vacancy in the future, instead of hiring from the outside.
The choice or recruitment method of organizations vary depending on their allotted budget for hiring employees, the urgency to fill up the vacant position, the type of job and the number of staff needed. These factors will help companies decide the type of recruitment method they will adopt. But whatever method the organization will utilize, what is important is that they are able to get the best people without practicing unethical ways of recruitment. An evaluation of the chosen recruitment method should be done based on the response rate, type of response, ease of operation and success rate.
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