Federalism is a type of government where authority is shared among the state governments and the national government. In the USA the constitution allocates particular authority to the two some of which differ while others are similar. The federal authority controls issues of foreign policy with the capability to issue threats, control exports and imports. Another major responsibility allocated to the federal government is the power to print and produce money however some other responsibilities are shared by both the federal government and the state government they include civil rights, business regulation, taxation and environmental protection.
Several significant changes have been observed concerning the federal government since its implementation in the year 1787.Two main types of federalism developed that controlled the political theory are the co-operative federalism and the dual federalism, co-operative federalism states that the national government is superior compared to the states the dual federalism notes that the federal government has its powers listed in the constitution and can only exercise those that are listed in the constitution and that the states have a wide variety of powers meaning that the two governments should be co-equals but the type is almost dead in most parts of the U.S.A most branches prefer to use the co-operative federalism.The move from dual federalism to co-operative was steady and slow.
Some powers like the delegated powers are only assigned to the federal authority and are very specific they include control over international and interstate trade, upkeep of armies, authority to enter into treaties and enforcement of copyrights. A number of reasons are listed for choosing the federal government they include a wide range of political divisions and how large the nation is.
In the early 1700s John Marshall a Chief Justice by then was actively involved in defining the powers of the state and federal government. This was due to the reason that federalism had not yet been evidently defined in the constitution of America and the Supreme Court had to solve issues of decision making and powers regarding federalism. Taney B Roger gave statements that benefited federal and state governments equally but the seventeenth and sixteenth amendments boosted federalisms powers to a great extent where at that particular period the federal government was given the right to monitor currency patents,national defense,copyrights(Alison L,132 ).
Radically due to the great depression power was once again returned back to the federal government cause of the downward trend of the economy.New Deal strategies seemed to be catching the eye of many Americans introduced by Roosevelt Franklin since the policies argued federal governments to work together with extra ranks of governments for the purpose of implementing policies at that time it had acquired the name co-operative federalism where the system distributed funds as aid and the government had an advantage in controlling how money was used(Andrew l ,1996).
With time New Federalism took over in America but is a recent development it was supported by the president in office in the year 1985 called Ronald Reagan but it had another name known as Devolution evolution. President Bill Clinton also supported the move their main motive was to reestablish the lost power due to the effects of the new deal.Sometimes the power shifted in favour of the federal government (Joseph M, 2000). Some other powers that existed included the concurrent powers that both the state and federal governments shared concurrently like the ability to maintain and construct roads maintain courts and supremacy on tax. Another one is the implied powers which are not precisely listed in the constitution but are known to be important.
A conflict for example arises when industries extracting oil and gas are not touched by the federal government but by the state governments though they hold controversial energy issues and regulation matters (Barbara W, 2013).
The following sources used Harvard University, American Journal of Legal History and oxford university press are well known educational publishers especially Harvard and Oxford University press with their main aim being informing and educating. The American journal of legal history is a government agency the contents inside are written by qualified professionals.
Alison Lather Ideological Origins of American Federalism. Harvard University Press , 2010 .print.
Jennifer S. and Barbara Warner. Frocking regulatory policy. Oxford University press 2013.
Joseph M.Th. Federalists and the Federalist: A Forgotten History.Seton. Hall Law 2000.
Andrew and Lenora Tale of Two Constitutions: Nationalism in the Federalist Era." American Journal of Legal History,1996.
Kermit L. Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford Unit and Press American legislature, 1992.