Organ transplant can be defined as the transfer of an organ from one person to another or from a different location on the body of the patient, with an aim of substituting the missing or damaged organ of the recipient. Matching donor and recipient is currently done using a computer program, which performs the matching of the donor’s organ and recipients on the basis of specific features. These include tissue type, blood type, weight, and height. The time that the patient has been awaiting, how far the recipient's hospitals is from that of the donor, as well as the illness severity of the patient, are also taken into consideration of the best match for a particular organ (Siminoff, Arnold and Hewlett).
The process of transplant occurs after the donor has agreed to donate the organ. This is usually followed by carrying out of tests like matching of tissue type and blood group. The patient’s history if also looked at accompanied by questioning of the family. The transplant is performed immediately when the recipient is ready to be operated on. After the transplant, the same operation team will perform the patient’s follow up care.
Following an organ transplant, the patient will need to take anti-rejection or immunosuppressant drugs. These drugs are important in the prevention of the attack of the new organ by the immune system. Characteristically they ought to be taken for the transplanted organ lifetime. Other medications are also taken to assist the anti-rejection drugs to work effectively or to regulate their side effects. The patient may as well be required to take medications for other health conditions. A constant threat after transplant is organ rejection. In order to prevent an attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system there is a need for constant vigilance. If a transplanted organ is rejected, the transplant team may have to adjust the patient’s anti-rejection drug regime.
Transplant rejection takes place when a transplanted organ is attacked and damaged by the immune system of the recipient. Transplant rejection is usually reduced through determination of the molecular similitude between the recipient and donor, as well as through the use of immunosuppressant drugs following transplant (Frohn, Fricke and Puchta).
Frohn, C., et al. "The effect of HLA‐C matching on acute renal transplant rejection." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 16.2 (2001): 355-360.
Siminoff, L. A., R. M. Arnold and J. Hewlett. "The process of organ donation and its effect on consent." Clinical transplantation 15.1 (2001): 39-47.