What is meant by the idea of organizational change?
Arguably, managing change in every organization is very crucial for the success of the organizations. Employers and management team always focus on adapting the changes. Organizational change refers to change of a strategy, structure, technologies, culture, as well as the skills and attitudes of the employees. The organizational change is aimed at changing various departments of the organization that does not attain the framework of obtaining competitive advantage. Perhaps, organizational change also means recognizing the coordination, reporting relationship, departmental structure, and decision making procedure.
How does organizational development facilitate organizational change?
Organizational development facilitates organizational change in various ways. Organizational development helps in ensuring that organizational changes do not receive a lot of resistance from the employees and other stakeholders. In this case, organizational development gives employees a chance to formulate the changes that are required in the organization and implement it. The employees feel they are part of the change; hence they will be supportive in the change process. A trained consultant helps the employees in implementing changes. Organizational changes can sometimes be carried out, yet it does not align with the organizational objective. In this case, organizational development undertakes research action by collecting data and feeding the information, in this way it will facilitate a crucial organizational change. Furthermore, organizational development improves human relationship skills; this is aimed at ensuring that employees are in a position to analyze themselves and others during the change process. Organizational development helps the organizational change process through human process, techno-structure, human resource management, and strategy.
Why is it important for a manager to appraise a subordinate's performance?
It is indispensable for the manager and the management team to appraise the performance or the subordinates for various reasons. Performance appraisal is one of the crucial activities that are carried out by managers. This activity is crucial because it helps in analyzing the career behavior of the employees in order to ascertain their performance. In addition, it helps in appraising the work related behaviors of the employees and develop a tremendous plan to correct and sort of deficiencies. For organizational performance, the manager’s appraisal on employees guarantees straightening of weakness on personal career. The feedback received by the manager during appraisal gives the employee morale to work harder for their efforts are recognized. Generally, a manager's appraisal of employees' performance improves the entire organizational welfare. It improves performance of the employees, as well as productivity.
How can a manager handle a subordinate who is defensive when told that his or her performance is poor?
In order to avoid being offensive, the manager needs to employ a good approach to a defensive employee. The manager should not get personal when approaching the employee, the overall communication should be based on work. In addition, the manager needs to avoid comparing of the employee to others. In case a comparison is necessary, it is essential to compare the employee performance to a standard. Moreover, encouraging personal talk will reduce the defensive character of the employee. Personal talk will enable the employee to express his ideas on to who she or he is not performing well. The manager should not attack the defensive character of the employee, but comprehend that the defensive behavior is normal. Perhaps, the manager should provide incidents that the employee was appraised so as to accept the mistake. The entire criticism, the manager should free from bias and objectively based.
What are the guidelines that supervisors should follow to hold effective appraisals and minimize problems like bias and halo effects?
There are guidelines that the supervisor should follow in order to minimize problems and effective appraisal. There are various guidelines for effective appraisal. The first guideline is to understand the potential problems of appraisal; this will avoid the problem. Another guideline is to ensure that the right tool of appraisal is used. In addition, keep a diary of employee performance reduces appraisal problems. The fourth guideline entails getting agreement on a plan. The end result of the appraisal should be a plan on how each employee must improve on his/her efforts. Finally, the supervisor should be fair; this implies that every appraisal that is given is fair and based on the work.
How can rating committees improve the fairness of the appraisal process?
Rating committee can improve the level of fairness during appraisal in various. In most organizations, employers use rating committee in the appraisal process. The level of fairness can be improved by using multiple raters. Discrepancies may occur but in general perspective composite raters are reliable, valid and fair. In addition, use of different raters will eliminate halo and bias effects.
In a brief essay, discuss the four decisions that affect a firm's promotion process.
Promotion is decidedly crucial to every employee since it means increased job satisfaction, high pay, and more responsibilities. There are four decisions that affect the promotion process in a firm. These four decisions include is seniority and competence the rule, how should competence be measured, is the process informal or formal, as well as vertical, horizontal, or other. The first decision entails whether to base promotion competence or seniority, or whether to combine both. Companies promote employees based on competence. In this case, it is relatively straightforward to measure and define past performance. Certainly, many organizations have a promotion process that is formal. Finally, vertical and horizontal asserts that promotions ion firms are not straightforward. Firms create various career paths in the promotion process.
Explain the equity theory of motivation.
The equity theory of motivation asserts that individuals are motivated strongly in order to maintain balance between rewards and input perception. It states that if individual perceives a tension, an inequality, or drive will build up in a person's mind, and the individual in question will develop motivation to eliminate the perceived inequality and tension. Studies tend to hold up equity theory because it applies mostly to unpaid people.
Explain the equity theory of motivation. What are the four forms of equity?
There are four forms of equity that should be addressed by managers. These include external, procedural, internal, as well as individual. External equity pass on to how a job pays in companies can be compared. Internal equity, on the other hand, refers to the job can fairly be compared to another job within the same company. The fairness of an individual compared to the coworkers is known as individual view. Procedural equity is the fairness that is perceived on procedures and processes that are used in decision making.