Victor Vroom (1964)
According to this theory, people can work faster if only some of the conditions would prevail. Firstly if a person knows that his or her effort would lead to him, her being rewarded then he, or she is likely to work best. but still the kind of reward still determine the impact of motivation in that if reward is not satisfying the individual’s important need then such individual may not be as motivated like another individual who is expecting his or her effort to yield a reward that would satisfy his or her important need. Therefore, this theory implies that there must be positive correlation between effort and performance and this correlation can only be made through giving reward and this reward must satisfy the individual’s important needs like the physiological needs. Having understood this theory then we must examine the applicability of this theory in different workplaces. This theory for example is not applicable much in those workplaces that entails sensitive work. For example people working at hospital settings must not base their extra effort on the concept behind this theory instead they should work to their best at all time whether the outcome of their effort is best or not
Abraham Maslow 1943
According to Abraham maslow theory of needs, people can only get motivated if they realize that their efforts aims at satisfying needs that determine human survival (physiological needs), safety needs, social needs like friendship, intimacy and the need to have and provide for the family, need for self esteem and also the need for self-actualization. Therefore, it is important to ensure that people have needs beyond money that are important in determining their work output. This theory helps when solving some of the organizational problems that may arise due to poor individual performance. Nevertheless, it must be noted that in the current era it is difficult to satisfy all these needs. Therefore this theory must take account the fact that the social context greatly determines the eventual outcome. It is very difficult to satisfy all these needs. Due to this the managers should only ensure that certain percentage of these need based on their priority are met and should not struggle s much to satisfy all needs.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 – 1990)
Reinforcement theory is a theory commonly used by managers as a tool for enhancing the organizational performance by individual. Reinforcement theory considers the fact that individuals are able to positively change their behaviors if he or she knows the consequences of their actions. If the consequence for example involve getting a certain reward then an individual is likely to work hard. On the other hand, if the consequence implies that the individual would get punishment for poor performance then such individual is likely to work hard to avoid punishment. Therefore, according to this theory there is positive reinforcement, which is achieved through giving rewards, and negative reinforcement, which is achiev3ed through punishing for poor performance. Though reinforcement theory is essential as far as motivation in workplace is concerned, it worth noting that this theory cannot be applied in all the workplaces you can think of. Some organizations for example are too small to apply this theory in their attempt to boost their organizational performance. Therefore this theory must be integrated with other theories which mainly focus in intrinsic rewards rather than the material rewards. This is because it is affordable and cheap to offer intrinsic rewards especially by small organization than the material reward
Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1996–2008)
According to this theory, better results can only be realized if people are given those kinds of motivations that satisfy their intrinsic needs rather than those forms of motivations that are based on external rewards or punishment. The applicability of this theory largely depends on the competence of the managers giving motivation in that it is only those managers who can understand the psychological aspects of individuals that can comfortably apply this theory.
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