Utilitarianism is a principle that the moral worth of an action is determined by its usefulness in maximizing utility and minimizing negative utility. Utility is the pleasure, preference satisfaction and knowledge. The moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome. In this study we are going to compare Mill, John Stuart’s work 'Utilitarianism’ and Kant, Immanuel’s work 'Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.' The study will also come up with findings based on the comparisons if the end justifies the means.
John Mill’s account on Utilitarianism is primarily influenced by Jeremy Bentham Continue reading...
Enlightenment College Essays Samples For Students
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Essay On Mill's Utilitarianism Vs. Kantian Ethics
The Israel Palestine Conflict Essay Sample
Judging this conflict using the philosophical article of Rousseau ‘discourse on origin of inequality’
Rousseau’s philosophical article discourse on the origin of inequality was an attempt to analyze the source of evil and inequality that have been boggling man since his existence in this world. Rousseau in his article wrote that the very evil that faces humanity has originated from selfish behavior of the natural man. To him the man who first installed boundaries on his perceived property became the source of all evil in the world today. In this article Rousseau, wrote that life was initially good when people just had enough to make them survive and enough personal space. The Continue reading...
Good Essay On 4th Religious Thought
This paper endeavors to explain how different ancient philosophers argued of how they believe in God scientifically and biblically and also how the current 21st generations believe in the existent of God as the creator and the provider of the universe. It also covers my personal views of the argument.
Baruch Spinoza (in Hebrew Bento is Baruch, in Latin is Benedictions) is one of the most important philosophers and certainly the most essential of the early modern period. His thoughts combine a dedication to a number of Cartesian metaphysical and epistemological principles with elements from ancient stoicism and medieval Continue reading...
Free Essay About Ethical Theories Of Aristotle And Immanuel Kant
Throughout the history of Western civilization, people have asked themselves questions about how to lead their lives and achieve happiness. Major philosophers have debated this idea, arguing for different ways of orienting their lives, commenting and criticizing their precursors in the process. Two of the most important of these thinkers were Aristotle and Immanuel Kant, who both drafted different ethical theories, while staying within the boundaries of what is considered standard in the Western philosophical tradition. Specific differences in their contexts lead to major dissimilarities in their theories. However, both theories have aspects which may be considered correct, and Continue reading...
Essay On Subjective And Objective Aspects Of Beauty
“Critique of Judgment " is a fundamental work of Kant which develops aesthetic theory. This work is divided into two parts: The Critique of Aesthetic Judgment and The Critique of Teleological Judgment. The book also contains an overview of the entire Critic system of the author.
In the “Critique of Judgment” Kant explores the reflective power of judgment which is manifested, in particular, in the judgment of taste or aesthetic judgments. Aesthetic pleasure, according to Kant, is pure (disinterested) pleasure derived from an object. Therefore, the aesthetic should be distinguished from the feeling of pleasure.
Kant stated that although the Continue reading...
Enlightenment And The American Revolutionary And French Revolution Essays Examples
The enlightenment would introduce a new system of government and the most important one was sovereignty. The people had every reason to support enlightenment because it brought changes to their political culture. The sovereignty came to the citizens, and it brought equality that did not exist. People did not have businesses that were honorable and did not have the opportunity to own land (Outram, pg.137). During this age, enlightenment thinks endorsed ideas of natural law and progress in all their dealings. The people began to question their governments and leaders. They realized the oppression that the government was imposing Continue reading...
Good Example Of Essay On Reaction Paper: Locke, Montesquieu, And Rousseau
- For Locke:John Locke, Second Treatise on Government, 1689
In the “second treatise of government”, Locke advocates that governments are formed through mutual agreement. He is of the view that those who are given the mandate to govern must do so without violating the fundamental rights and freedoms of the people. He opines that people acquire the rights to property, life, and liberty upon birth. Locke’s contention is that governments are supposed to protect the foregoing rights for the benefit of the citizens. Accordingly, he observes that the power to make laws is a preserve of the people.
Normative Theory 1 And Social Responsibility Essay Sample
The ancestor of classical German philosophy Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) during the early period of the activity dealt with issues of natural sciences much and made the hypothesis of the origin and developments of the solar system.
This philosophical system is the compromise between materialism and idealism. Materialistic tendencies in Kant's philosophy affect that he recognizes the existence of objective reality, things out of us. Kant teaches that there are the "transcendental objects" which are not depending on the learning subject. If Kant consistently carried out this look, it would come to materialism. But in contradiction with this materialistic view, Continue reading...
Example Of Essay On Heythrop College University Of London
Level 4 (UG Year 1): Coursework Cover Sheet [last update October 2013]
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The paper analyzes different aspects of the modernity in Judaism and distinguishes the crucial characteristics of the Continue reading...
Short Answer Essays Examples
Explain why the move from amour de soi to amour propre is crucial Rousseau's claim that civilization has done more damage than good for the development of human mankind.
The personality that featured himself as a continued importance to us is Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He has the importance because of the situations that are present in today’s world. In spite of him being left us a quarter millennium ago. He is the one who has an insight view of the living. That is living a better life in the competitive, status conscious and hierarchical societies. He has also provided Continue reading...
Example Of Essay On Emmanuel Kants Ethical Theory
The ethical theory proposed by the great German philosopher Emmanuel Kant is centered on three dimensions- goodwill, moral worth and duty. Possession of goodwill is the primary requirement of achieving morality. Goodness of one's action is not defined by its goal, reason, means and the expected desirable effects, but is solely determined by its nature. Therefore, certain actions such as theft, cheating, and murder are prohibited even if these actions will hinder man from gaining more happiness since they are naturally immoral.
Moral worth is achieved only if the actions are governed by goodwill alone. Actions will not be Continue reading...
Good Essay On Humes Criteria Of Virtue
Philosophers customarily described virtue as the morally good habit such as honesty, honour and benevolence among others. Ethicists essentially failed to offer specific definition of the idea of virtue since the term often assumes controversial meanings in different situations. Hume is one of the renowned philosophers who have considerably developed the knowledge of the idea of virtues. Hume assumes a different perspective from the traditional view of the concept of virtue in reference to both the moral significance and the quantity of virtues. In his moral writings, Hume stretches the idea of virtues to include values such as wit, Continue reading...
Humes Problem Essay Sample
The problem facing induction has been a great challenge presented by epistemology to various philosophers, among them David Hume. Since the 18th century, he has raised the induction concern to various philosophers with the aim of finding a solution to the dilemma. Karl Popper, Chalmers among others philosophers played an imperative role in identifying a considerable solution to the induction problem. In philosophy, induction is defined as a form of reasoning that is derived from a particular observation of a phenomenon and draws conclusions from the phenomenon. For instance, it is certain that the sun will rise tomorrow Continue reading...
Essay On Emersons Self Reliance And Kants Autonomy
Throughout history, philosophers have often clashed heads in regards to the definition and understanding of the human self. Many have formulated a myriad of theories that attempt to decipher the true meaning and motivations of the human self. Two of the moist prolific philosophers of the exploration of this aspect were Immanuel Kant and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson was an American philosopher born and raised in Massachusetts. On the other hand, Kant lived in an earlier era and was German by birth. It was Kant’s original transcendental deductions that later acted as an influence to the New England Continue reading...
Authordatesubject Essays Example
CONTEMPORARY RELEVANCE OF PLATO’S ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is drawn from his tremendous works on the Republic. It is literally a conversation that takes place between Socrates and Gaucon. The conversation is categorized into three parts. The first section is the scene within the cave. According to Kernan, the second part of the discourse deliberates on the three stages of liberation and the third creates a picture of the prisoner returning to the same cave.
The scene in the cave is one of gloom and darkness, with prisoner chained and unable to move around, even their heads could only face one Continue reading...
Hobbesian Version Of The States Of Nature Versus Rousseaus Disclosure On Inequality Essay Example
The state of nature is an idea arising from moral and political concepts that try to explain the right and wrong things about human life (Moehler 300). It also elaborates on the perception of human beings and power influence to human life. The states of nature try to explain the human life before civilization with an assumption of what the case would be in case civilization did not exist in the present life (Stănilă 62). However, through the disclosure on inequality, Rousseau presents a different view tracing man way back to the original being. As much as Hobbes Continue reading...
Animal Sentience And Morality Essay
The issue of if animals have the same sentience and morality of humans is a topic that has been greatly debated throughout history. Many philosophers and scientists have weighed in to try and find the answer to this age-old question. Singer has explicit views on the relative sentience of animals and morality of the ways in which human beings use animals, and those views often come into conflict with the ways that human beings interact with non-human animals in various societies. Singer defines sentience as “the capacity to experience episodes of positively or negatively valenced awarenesses” (Singer). Positive sentience Continue reading...
An Individuals Happiness In The Society Essays Example
In a world where most people will only be interested in those things that satisfy their selfish whims, it is unlikely that one would passionate about the general happiness of others in the society. The concept of happiness is an emotional state of wellness that is manifest by the exuberance of pleasant emotions that emanates from a feeling of contentment and joy. However, this definition at best does not capture all the multi-facets of happiness as it may be construed by different persons. Disparities in meaning and construction have been raised by commentators who confine happiness to the hedonistic Continue reading...
Good Women, Gender And Sex In The Rise Of The Western Civilization Essay Example
Cultural beliefs illustrate theories, facts, norms, values, or principles that individuals need to uphold while in the society. The society has a perception on various issues that surround an individual’s life. As such, the individual needs to adopt the perceptions and uphold them while in a given social setting. The following discussion gives an analysis of women, gender, and sex in the rise of western civilization. The discussion makes use of great philosophers and historians who provided different arguments about the topic in order to prove certain points. A comparison and contrast between the works of Jean Jacques Continue reading...
Example Of Essay On Comparing And Contrasting Locke And Rousseau In Inequality
Equality is one of the most prevalent themes among the theories developed by intellectuals in society. Even though different theories present various types of discourses regarding the varying degrees of fairness and equality, the political thought during the time of Rousseau and John Locke critically analyzed the concept of equality and inequality in society and emphasized the importance of the individual in thinking. They considered the disposition of humans through the lens of individualism rather than examining the group as a whole. The result was these intellectuals were able to spot a certain extent of secularization in the contemporary Continue reading...
Principals Of Ethics Essay Example
Ethics can be examined in many different manners, however, Kant’s model of ethics presents a framework to explain how people perceive ethics through reward and punishment. Kant feels that the only way to truly understand ethics is to experience a variety of ethical dilemmas and learn to solve them through emotional stimulus. Kant’s concept of moral obligation is that there is a priori concept of our minds. This essentially removes God as the basis for morality, and argues that we have free-will in regards to our own moral compass.
Kant argues that ethics are learned throughout the Continue reading...
Good Example Of Premise 1: All Men Are Mortal Essay
Since the 1930s a new philosophical direction developed almost without recognition of the public. Since then it gained in importance, till it has reached quite recently the predominant role. While this philosophical movement was in the beginning described as Logical Empiricism, or Neopositivism it is nowadays much more accurately described bas Analytical Philosophy. It conducts language and notion analysis on the basis of logic. Gaining popularity in the last years it has altered and even erased some old concepts of classical philosophy.
- Vienna Circle
The Vienna circle was a philosophical school Continue reading...
This study will define some of the terms such as Rationalism Empiricism and principle of utility states. It will further discuss some of the hypotheses by the philosophers such as Nietzsche and Sartre.
Rationalism is being defined in philosophy as, the analysis that regards reasons as the primary source and the knowledge analysis. Empiricism is a theory that all the knowledge of matters of facts comes from sensory experience (Locke, 1998).The principle of utility states that, both actions and behavior are correct as long as they uphold happiness and pleasure. On the other hand, actions and behaviors are Continue reading...
Essay On Optimization Of Selfish Indivdual Interests & Social Passions In A Commercial Society
Manderville argues that “private vices” (or self-interest) leads to “publick benefits” (such as social structures like language, law and markets). This is because thinkers like Manderville posit that the best approach for running a society is to create and maintain a Capitalist structure where all members commercialize their effort and make the best of it in terms of profiting from their activities. This paper posits that the benefit of such a commercial society is that it enables people to turn their selfish and unsociable passion into good and positive things. The paper will evaluate this thesis in the light Continue reading...
Good Essay About An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
David Hume was a successful philosopher who was social and pleasing to be around. His first book, Treatise of Human Nature, did not receive much attention from people. However, it did not deter him from coming up with his second book, The Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. The book is a remake of his first book and focuses on building on empirical philosophy done by Locke and Berkeley. The book also attacks Descartes’ metaphysical rationalism as well as others. The book has an argumentative series that has incremental steps, with each chapter containing its logistics and succeeds the previous chapter. Continue reading...
Buddhism Essays Example
Discussion on the Record of Linji
It is for this reason that his question to the head priest, Huangbo, brought him the beating that is the norm in the Buddhist teachings. Huangbo hit him with the rattan, which was a ten-foot bamboo pole, used for this purpose. The teachings that Linji adhered to were part of the Buddhist monastery teaching that involved beating and shouting. He asked the question three times, and was beaten three times. The idea was for him to receive enlightenment, but he clearly did not get that. If he had been mindful and enlightened, there would have been no need for Continue reading...
Descartes, Leibniz And Spinoza On Substance Essays Example
Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza on Substance
Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz are the three philosophers that stand out among their contemporaries in the seventeenth century as the greatest rationalists. While constructing their philosophical systems, each of them sought to incorporate philosophical and theological foundations to explain the existence and the essence of substance as regards, mental, physical and moral universe. In discussing their philosophy in relation to substance, the three philosophers are known in their philosophical systems as Leibnizian pluralism, Spinozan monism and Cartesian dualism.
Descartes’ Account on Substance: Cartesian Duality
Descartes’ philosophical system on substance was extremely influential on the subsequent 17 century philosophers who developed their own accounts in reference Continue reading...
Example Of Enlightened Absolutism In Mozarts The Magic Flute Essay
It is scarcely possible to describe the history of music without reaching the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart is well known and celebrated as being one of the greatest composers and musicians in recorded history, and for good reason. Very few individuals in history have had such a profound and pronounced effect on their field as Mozart has, and a testament to this can be read from the symbolism and thematic content of his magnum opus, The Magic Flute. It is an ostensibly light-hearted fairy-tale opera that served as a convenient introduction to the genre and continues to Continue reading...
Good Essay About Buddhism
Discussion on the Record of Linji
The search for truth is within each man. As a young monk, Linji did not quite understand the truth of what one should be as a person in the light of Buddhist teaching. He was a simple down to earth person, and spent his days minding his own business. His question to the head priest, Huangbo, brought about severe retribution. Huangbo hit him with a ten-foot bamboo pole. The use of the rattan that was popular in the Buddhist monasteries and especially in the teachings to which Linji was exposed. This happened three times, after he asked the question: Continue reading...
Free Enlightenment Essay Sample
Enlightenment connotes to the transitional process that involve positive significant development. The cited enlightenment has been in existence from the 17th century to the contemporary times. However, the cited enlightenment for instance industrial revolution has elicited myriad debate on its effectiveness coupled with the success. Categorically, myriad challenges have been identified in the enlightenment process. The mentioned challenges such as political, economic and social have instigated untold suffering to the myriad populace. The paper endeavors to explicitly extrapolate on industrial revolution as the failure of enlightenment.
Agreeably, enlightenment has significantly changed the status of specific nations. For instance, industrialization Continue reading...
What Was Scientific About The Scottish Enlightenments Approach To Social Essay Sample
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David Hume one of central figures of Scottish Enlightenment said “The Christian religion not only was at first attended with miracles, but even at this day cannot be believed by any reasonable person without one.” This is an ample evidence of his rational and logical thinking. He always argued in favour of proof in order to establish the truth – making him one of the strongest rationalists and also establishing himself as an empiricist. Continue reading...
Good Essay On The Issue Of Universality In Ethics
Universal Ethics is a set of values that apply to all humans, whether religious or secular, independent from any particular faith. The compilation of Universal Ethics is not a base for a new religion. In precise, it does not say anything about liturgical or philosophical notions of any categories. That means that it does not elucidate the existence of the Universe with inclusion of a man’s existence. It does not suggest any precise ritual in addition it does not deal with the concept of God. It does not contain any stories, myths, or absolute doctrines. Most significantly, Universal Continue reading...
Free Essay About Political Science
Social Contracts as proposed by Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau
Numerous psychologists have contributed immensely to the field of psychology and human behavior and a few famous such psychologists are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Rousseau, among other who have contributed largely to the field of psychology. All the above mentioned psychologists are exemplary thinkers as each one of them has grappled to an exceptional extent in discussing the problem of origin. Considering Locke, this encompasses the origin of the psychic body of the individual; and while with Hobbes, it encompasses the origin of the social organization of the humankind.
The theory of Social Contracts as proposed by Thomas Hobbes Continue reading...
Objectification Essays Examples
At the center of feminist theory is the notion of objectification. Generally defined objectification is seeing and treating an individual as an object or a tool for use. Objectification has mostly been defined in relation to women than to men. Sexual objectification occurs in the context of sexuality. In the pornography debate, it’s been argued by anti-pornography feminists that, by men consuming pornography, women as a whole are reduced to the level of mere objects for use by men. Traditionally the view has been that only women can be sexually objectified, however, feminist authors Naomi wolf and Christina Continue reading...
Free Adam Smiths Contribution To The Modern Economic Life Essay Example
Invisible hand concept
A great economist, philosopher, scholar and researcher Adam Smith passed this world a few centuries ago and left us quite controversial matters to be discussed and clarified. Famous and prominent scholars tend to leave us certain mysteries for this world to wonder.
In his book “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”, Adam Smith asserts:
“Every individual is continually exerting himself to find out the most advantageous employment for whatever capital he can command. It is his own advantage, indeed, and not that of the society, which he has in view. But the study of his own advantage naturally, or rather necessarily, leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous Continue reading...
J.S. Mill Versus Immanuel Kant Dilemma Essay Example
J.S. Mill versus Immanuel Kant dilemma
There has been little notable progress so far in determining the controversy of judging the criterion of wrong and right. Among the facts presented about the present state of human knowledge, the controversy’s state is most indicative significant of the outdated state in which making theories of the relevant subject still lingers. So far, it proves how much little progress exists. Since the dawn of philosophy, the question of the “summum bonum", (the greatest good) concerning morality has caused its division into schools and sects warning against each other, and is recognized Continue reading...
Free Essay About Aristotles And Inductive And Deductive Questions
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Answers for multiple choice questions
1. B (Inductive, Strong)
2. E (Deductive, Invalid)
3. A (Deductive, Valid)
4. E (Inductive, Weak)
5. D (Inductive, Strong)
6. C (Deductive, Invalid)
7. B (Inductive, Weak)
8. A (Inductive, Strong)
9. C (Deductive, Valid)
10. E (Inductive, Weak)
1. The gestures of Aristotle and Plato are rather rhetorical in the sense that they look like pointing to the heavens and the earth. Aristotle claims that all change on Earth was owing to the movements of the heaven and earth; he essentially carries his ethics. Socrates Continue reading...
Good Example Of Essay On Absolute Moral Rules
This is my position regarding the chapter 9 Are there absolute moral rules? in the book ‘The Elements of Moral Philosophy’. It has an elaborate discussion on absolute moral values analyzing the situations from World War II period. Harry Truman justified his decision to drop atom bombs in Japan, telling that he thought that would end the war. Elizabeth Anscombe, one of the greatest woman philosophers and non-consequentialist, mentioned that Truman should be regarded as a murderer, arguing the point some things may not be done no matter what. Immanuel Kant, another non-consequentialist, brings forth hypothetical and categorical imperatives, Continue reading...
Aspect Of Human Experience: Enlightenment Essays Examples
Enlightenment, love, experience, and even chaos and the brutality of war- the word ‘war’ here used to include a wide array of conflicts and disagreements that result in various kinds of brutality- are central themes in many philosophical discussions. Many of these discussions discern these aspects, but also find the interrelationship between them, either implicitly or explicitly. The readings in class: Shirane’s Traditional Japanese Literature, De Barry’s discussions in the Sources of East Asian Tradition, among others do the same, offering their various insights into these elements and more (often implicitly). But most importantly, these sources show Continue reading...
Ontology And The Problem Of The Existence Of God Essays Example
Since the beginning of time, people constantly look for ways of justifying their religions. The most basic justification would be the presence of God. For this reason, many religions look for ways of proving that God Exists. Cosmological arguments are those that seek to show either the presence or the absence of God in the universe (Hume, 59). In the cosmological argument, one looks at one factor about the world. Such factors include the fact that the earth has materials that cause others to exist. The cosmological argument has two parts. The first part seeks to proof the existence Continue reading...