Behavioral Psychology is one of the basic topics in psychology that looks into how people or animals behave the way they behave. Although, behavioral psychology is one of the foundations of psychology, teachers have observed that students find the topic a little difficult to understand. The topic tries to find an explanation why people or animals have their corresponding mental and physical reactions in response to certain stimuli. In behavioral psychology, the idea is that the behavior of people and animals can be both conditioned and results of either rewards or punishments applied to them. Further, it is also Continue reading...
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Essays on Operant Conditioning
Good Example Of Conditioning Essay
Conditioning in Psychology refers to the processes by which repeated stimulus produce predictable and frequent response. There are two types of conditioning namely classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov during his digestive system research (Kalat, 2011). Pavlov noticed that the dogs salivated whenever they sighted attendants dressed in lab coats. He attributed this behavior to the repeated exposure of both food and lab coats to the dogs. Pavlov investigated the behavior by ringing a bell whenever he was presenting food to dog. After repeated occurrences, he observed that the dogs could salivate when the Continue reading...
Classical And Operant Conditioning Essays Examples
Everyday questions about people, how they think and behave take center stage. Understanding behavior and mannerisms are the purposes of psychology. Understanding behavior facilitates the comprehension of self. Further analysis purports the idea of not only predicting behavior, but also manipulating it. The ability to manage and manipulate behavior is a powerful tool and as with any power misuse can occur. If wielded properly, it can help advance human civilization by managing characteristics that are self-destructive and cultivating ones that are beneficial.
Description and Contrast
The manner in which people behave is dependent of the learning processes they undergo. One acquires knowledge, Continue reading...
Free Research Paper On Operant And Classical Conditioning
Learning is one of the areas of human psychology that remains, to this day, hotly contested by researchers. Some claim that learning is one type of process, while others claim that learning takes place through a different process. Two of the leading theories regarding learning are the theories of operant and classical conditioning. Both have been studied extensively throughout the years, and each has supporters and detractors. Choosing a method for learning and teaching behavior is different from learning complex ideas and engagement in a classroom, but principles of operant and classical conditioning can still be used in these Continue reading...
Essay On Classical Conditioning Vs Operant Conditioning
In psychology, there is a learning theory that states that as we learn, we adjust the manner in which we perceive our environment and the manner in which we interpret the incoming stimuli. Consequently, all this alters the way we interact, or behave. It is from this theory that one learns about behaviorism. The latter is the study or our behaviors after exposure to given stimuli within the environment. This helps us in understanding the effects given stimuli have on us.
In the learning theory, we have classical and operant conditioning. In classical conditioning, one learns to associate one Continue reading...
Free Physical Theories And Theorists Essay Example
Psychology is a vast field. There are many laws, principles, and theories that govern the train of thoughts of psychologists and mental health professionals working in the field. Basically, psychology is a branch of science that is concerned with the academic and applied discipline of studying behaviors and mental functions of animals, which in this case, would be humans. Psychology is not only concerned with studying the behaviors and mental functions of an individual because it may also aim to study the behaviors and mental functions of a group or population. The objective of this paper is to discuss Continue reading...
Example Of Research Paper On Comparison Of Behaviouristic Learning Theories
Many thinkers and scientists have proposed models and theories about how people learn; they are called learning theories. The learning theories are classified as behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism, humanism and design-based. Behaviorism is based on the supposition that learning occurs for an organism through interactions with the environment. Behaviouristic school assumes that an organism always responds to a stimulus and the ‘responses’ are depends on the nature of the stimulus, i.e. rewarding or pain giving. Here, the learner is considered as a system that has the capability to respond to a stimulus and the learner is passive. The definition that Continue reading...
Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay Examples
According to Basford and Slevin (2003), classical conditioning relates to the normal-unlearned stimulus-response, which is normally experienced during reflex actions. The result is that a subject exposed to the neutral stimuli will respond in a similar manner as when exposed to the unconditioned stimuli. Examples include having lunch at noon and taking a bath in the morning. Extinction of classical conditioning occurs when the pairing between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is stopped.
Components of Classical Conditioning
- Neutral stimulus; this refers to a stimulus, which does not generate any response.
- Unconditioned Stimulus: this refers to a stimulus, which can Continue reading...
Define Behavior Modification And Explain How Reinforcement And Punishment Can Be Essay Samples
There are numerous ways to handle or react to various situations in human life, personal or professional. These ways are termed as behavior. It can be anything; general ways of life, responding to certain stimulus, responding to challenges, responding to social needs etc. These behavior is considered very important for success in any one’s action and reaction. Especially in case of management where there are great theories and defined ways of completion available, it becomes very vital that professionals have the right set of behaviors so that probability of success gets increased. There is a lot of academic Continue reading...
Operant Conditioningname:institution Affiliation Essay Samples
Learning and training a person or animal to behave a certain way can sometimes be tricky. Depending on the subject, mere instruction is not enough. At times the subject may require added motivation to learn or accept the training. In order to handle situation such as these, psychologists came up with what is known as operant conditioning, a system of rewards and punishments that allow the subject to be trained behaviorally.
Operant conditioning is a simple concept to understand. It is a learning technique, occurring through the practice of rewards and punishments for certain behaviors. Operant conditioning allows the Continue reading...
Operant Conditioning In The Criminal Justice Field Essay Samples
Human behaviour is one of the most studied subjects in the world today. The complexity of human behaviour has elicited a colossal amount of research by psychologists seeking to understand some of the behavioral trends exhibited by human beings. Consequently, these psychologists have advanced several theories that explain some of the fundamental aspects of human behaviour. Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable human behaviour. Theories of behaviorism emphasize behavioral changes that result from a stimulus-response association that is made by a learner. The proponents of this theory regard all human behaviour as a sort of response to natural stimuli ( Continue reading...
Essay On Operant Conditioning
In Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior (2012), Coon and Mitterer write, “The principles of operant conditioning  are among the most powerful tools in psychology” (pg. 226). The definition of operant conditioning is a form of learning in which reinforcement increases the probability of a response. A response that is followed by a reinforcing stimulus is more likely to reoccur. Operant conditioning is explains much day-to-day behavior. Every individual lives his or her life according to the reinforcement they receive after performing an action. This kind of learning is operant conditioning—“learning based on the consequences of Continue reading...
Operant Conditioning Essay Example
Operant Conditioning 2
Operant conditioning is a type of learning where a subject’s behavior is modified through antecedents and consequences. The concept was first discovered by Ivan Pavlov who was studying the digestive system of dogs. The theory of behaviorism was introduced by John B. Watson. Later, B.F. Skinner helped define the mechanics of behaviorism through his work. Over the years behaviorism has grown in popularity and scope. Research has shaped the practice of behaviorism as it has been adapted by many disciplines (education, psychology). The most popular use of Behavioral Therapy today is found in treating Continue reading...
Good Example Of Term Paper On Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement is when a response or a behavior gets strengthened by removing, stopping or avoiding an outcome that is negative. This term negative reinforcement is mentioned by B. F Skinner in his operant conditioning theory. Aversive stimuli always tend to involve some discomfort that is either psychological or physical in nature. Negative reinforcement is one of the most principles of behavior that is misunderstood. The term stimulus can be used within any applied behavior analysis to be able to describe when something is taken away. The stimulus can be an object, noise or even emotion. Negative reinforcement is Continue reading...
Basic Principles Of Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay Samples
There are two ways that help explain how animals learn and these two ways are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. The two share a variety of basic principles just as they share a number of principles in their differences. Operant conditioning, a theory that was propagated by B. F Skinner seeks to explain the leaning of behavior through reward and punishment (Nevida 2011). Voluntary responses begin to be controlled by their consequences in operant conditioning. Classical conditioning on the other hand was propagated by Pavlov and furthered by Watson and in their view, details that behavior is as a Continue reading...
Good Research Paper On Operant Conditioning In Criminal Justice
Theories of Behaviorism and Operant Condition or Learning
Theories of behaviorism relate to principles that seek to explicate behavior in terms of overt or observable actions and responses. Behaviorism is essentially defined by the theories proposed by John Watson and B.F. Skinner, which highlight the stimulus and response mechanism as a way to observe and understand human behavior. Behaviorism highly values observable behavior because it is a manifestation of internal behavior that is measurable and may easily be recorded (Nevid, 2012). Behaviorists such as Watson and Skinner argue that the observable and measurable nature of overt behavior makes it an essential and reliable gauge of human behavior. Continue reading...
Example Of Essay On Critical Paper 2
The Professor's name
In a daily routine life, people unconsciously learn by using classical and operant conditioning. The source of many fears, such as fear from animals and fear from public appearance is closely connected with the classical or operant conditioning. However, not only negative experiences are associated with conditioning, but positive one as well. Classical and operant conditioning are essential for understanding the close connection between our inner self and the surrounding.
One of the elementary principles of learning is classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning where, in time, one stimulus takes over the possibility Continue reading...
Sample Essay On Review And Application Of Learning Theory
For most of the time, the process of learning comes from the individual’s experience. People could change their behavior or improve themselves when they learn through various types of method (Walberg, 1984). Operant conditioning is one of the types of a learning process. It refers to the concept that inducing reinforcements could tend to continue a behavior while inducing punishment will stop it. It is a process in which the behavior is altered or modified by using positive reinforcements and punishments (Flora, 2004). For my example of the operant conditioning learning process, I will refer to the time Continue reading...
Example Of Pyschology Term Paper
Learning theories in Psychology.
The introduction will contain a preface to learning theories in psychology and the importance it has in the world. It will also contain the key points of the research paper.
- Introduction to learning theories in psychology over the years.
2. Skinner’s Behaviourism as a learning technique.
3. Operant Conditioning- the experiment.
4. How the experiment can be extended to human beings.
5. Behaviour modification therapy.
II- A. Learning theories in psychology.
- Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov.
This section will contain an introduction to classical conditioning, it’s advantages and disadvantages.
- Operant Conditioning by B. F. Skinner.
Skinner’s reasons for developing this new technique will be examined Continue reading...
Free Essay About Phobias And Addictions
A phobia is an irrational fear to natural phenomenon such that it is abnormal as compared to the behavior of normal people. It is normally triggered by a specific stimulus and hence is a consequence of conditioning. An addiction is a dependence on a substance or action for acquisition of pleasure with little regard for the possible negative effects. Conditioning is the training of the human, or any animal’s, system to respond in a specific manner when exposed to a specific stimulus. It can be voluntary or involuntary on the part of the subject hence the two types Continue reading...
Good Essay On Theoretical Perspectives
The psychological field is familiar with the difference of B.F. Skinner and John Watson’s theoretical perspectives. However, none of the two differs as much as Edward Tolman’s perspectives. One of his popular assertions is that his believes in the importance of every aspect in the psychological field. In addition, all those aspects can undergo investigation through perpetual theoretical and practical analysis of rat demeanor determiners in a maze (Pickren & Rutherford, 2010). These different perspectives are captivating and are popular in this era’s modern psychology. This paper will generate a fair comparison and contrast on Skinner and Continue reading...
Examples Of Classical Conditioning In Taste Aversion And Phobia Essays Example
Description of Classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Classical and operant conditioning are two learning theories extensively studied in psychology. Classical conditioning involves a response to a certain stimulus. Reflexive responses are brought under control of stimulus actions that usually herald the response (Klein & Mowrer, 2009). A certain event provokes a response.
A once neutral stimulus is matched with an unconditioned stimulus. In classical conditioning, learning occurs through interactions with the environment and the environment shapes behavior thus feelings, thoughts, and emotions are assumed irrelevant in explaining a particular behavior. On the other hand, operant conditioning is learning that occurs Continue reading...
Good Example Of Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay
The way people behave depends on their learning processes; the learning process involves the acquisitions, accumulation, and use of knowledge in everyday experiences. The two significant theories in the learning process are classical and operant.
Elements of classical and operant conditioning
In operant conditioning, a reinforcing stimulus follows a voluntary response. Due to the reinforcement, the voluntary stimulus is likely to be repeated by the person. The reinforcement acts as a stimulus which increases the chance of a repeat in behavior. The process of operant conditioning is efficient only when the voluntary response is immediately followed by the reinforcement; this helps the subject in perceiving Continue reading...
Role Of Shaping, Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Positive Punishment Essay Example
The ability of human beings and animals to adapt to their environment has ensured their continued existence. Adaptation results from learning to associate events and conditions with consequences. Through learning, organisms gain experience about those conditions, situations, and behaviors which are favorable to survival and which are not. The basic mechanism by which learning occurs has not changed. B. F. Skinner demonstrated this mechanism through experiments with a boxed rat (Feldman 184). His ideas, referred to as operant conditioning and consisting of the principles of reinforcement and punishment, are as relevant and useful today as when the findings were Continue reading...
Example Of Essay On Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning is type of learning which involves the modification of individual’s behavior through consequences. Individual’s behavior might be maneuvered in strength, frequency and form. Based on bedroom reading, being in bed means one is reading while in his or her bed. This is usually a good way of getting to sleep especially when reading is boring. It does not necessarily means that one is seated but also lying in bed. Being in bed and asleep means that one is in bed and he or she is totally slumbering. That is, his or her Continue reading...
Good Example Of Theories Of Learning- Behaviorism (Outline) Term Paper
Introduction: The central idea behind behaviorism is that all actions are acquired through conditioning processes. The nature of the conditioning processes as well as the exact mechanism through which they work is an issue deliberated between several schools of thought, outlined in the following paper.
- Classical conditioning. The method through which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus, generating a conditioned response.
- Main assumptions of classical conditioning.
- Main contributing theorists.
- Examples of studies examining classical conditioning.
- The use of classical conditioning in schools as well as therapeutic settings.
- Operant conditioning. The method through Continue reading...
Reinforcements Schedules Essay Sample
Operant conditioning is a concept developed by B.F Skinner. He defined it as behavior adjustments resulting either from greater or lesser negative or positive reinforcements and punishments. Our lives are actually dictated by operant conditioning. It has wide range of application and modification of people’s behavior either at work place, school or at home. Primary and secondary reinforces plays major part in operant conditioning. Before you pick out a reinforcer, it is important that you consider the person receiving that reinforcer.
Considering your roommate’s incident, I have developed a program to adjust his eating and lazy behavior Continue reading...
Example Of Research Paper On Operant Conditioning Background And Practical Implications
Operant conditioning refers to the process of behavior learning in which an individual receives external stimuli that can affect learning outcomes. The term was first used by Skinner, even though Watson and Thorndike already understood the procedures of operant conditioning, with the exception of continuous stimuli that were first applied by Skinner. The five procedures that explain the types of stimuli that can affect human behavior include positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, and extinction. In practice, operant conditioning is used to teach behavior to children, modify behavior in psychotherapy patients, and eliminate old or introduce new Continue reading...
B. Operant Conditioning Term Paper Example
Psychology: Behaviourism and Free Will
I. Introduction: Behaviorism and Free Will
Behaviorism (or learning theory) focuses primarily on overt or observable and quantifiable behaviors and excludes subjective phenomenon such as motives, feelings, and so on. It explains the processes, principles and laws by which learning occurs. Many schools of thought under behaviorism include Pavlovian, also known as classical or respondent, conditioning.
Under the basic tenet of classical conditioning, individuals learn by means of associating neutral stimulus with a meaningful response. Another behaviorism is Skinnerian, a.k.a. operant or instrumental, conditioning. Operant conditioning is the process whereby learning takes place when an action is done repeatedly Continue reading...
Phobias And Addictions Research Paper Sample
In the study of behavioral psychology, it is important to understand the motivation behind phobias and addictions. Phobia is an irrational fear associated with a certain stimuli, while addiction is a state developed from engaging in habit-forming behaviors. However, both phobia and addiction come as a result of learning. The two most important processes that cause phobia and addiction are classical and operant conditioning. Although both concepts result in learning, the processes differ.
Classical conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus pairs up with an unconditioned response. A good example is Ivan Pavlov’s study with dogs. In the study, Continue reading...
Operant Conditioning Essay Examples
The theory of operant conditioning created by behaviorist B.F. Skinner explains that a behavior can be understood by looking at the external apparent causes of an action and the related consequences resulting from that action. Skinner's theory was inspired by the Law of Effect theory of Edward Thorndike, but he added one additional component to Thorndike's law of effect and that is Reinforcement (McLeod, 2007). Reinforcement is of four types - positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. According to Skinner, behavior can be reinforced through rewards and punishment. Both positive and negative reinforcement strengthen a behavior and encourage Continue reading...
Example Of Foundations Of Behavior Reinforcement And Punishment Research Paper
Have you ever wonder why there are children that have tantrums and as soon as the parent hand them a candy, they will stop? However, there are kids that when parents spank them they do stop acting up. How about a kid will stop their outburst when the promised toy was not bought? All three are different methods, but the intended result is the same; stop the tantrum. Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior Continue reading...
Theory, Explanation And Illustration Of Motivation And Related Subject Research Paper
Even for psychologists not directly studying motivation, its understanding is critical in all branches of the discipline. Motivation is defined as the force that causes us to do things and think about things. It is the inner drive or force that causes a person to take action towards a specific end. It is termed a “driving force.” Hunger is a motivating force, which drives a person to it. As is thirst, and other primary inborn drives.
In Chapter 11 of Gregory Feist’s Pychology: Making Connections, the author establishes just how important motivation is for human behavior. (Feist, 2011) Continue reading...
Essay On Classical And Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two concepts of learning that are integral to behavioral psychology. Although the processes differ to quite an extent, they tend to complement one another, and the ultimate result of both concepts is learning. Although both conditioning practices were pioneered by different individuals, both believed in the general principle that investigating behaviors through experiments should be the basis of psychology.
Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist, was the one who unintentionally discovered the concept of classical conditioning while carrying out research on canine digestive patterns. According to his findings, His findings supported the idea that Continue reading...
Example Of Research Paper On Theory, Explanation And Illustration Of Operant Conditioning
Describe the theory of operant conditioning.
“Operant conditioning” is a term given to a system of learned behavior 1937 by B. F. Skinner that has to do with consequences controlling a person or animal’s behavior. Operant Conditioning is conditioning in which a person acquires a repeated association with a consequence with a certain behavior. An example would be a domesticated dolphin who learns that every time he does a double belly flip in the air he is rewarded with his favorite fish, salmon. After enough instances of receiving a salmon after doing a certain thing, consciously or unconsciously he will continue to repeat this Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Learning And Conditioning
When Michael smells onions and his girlfriend is not around, he will start searching for her around. This is because the smell of the onions has always been paired with the presence of his girlfriend. This has continued, the stimulus has been learnt, and this is what will makes him search for her around.
Unconditional stimulus occurs naturally without one being used to such stimulus. For example, when one smells oranges, he/she may have a sour taste regardless of the fact that such an individual has never eaten oranges. This means that there might have been no previous experience. Continue reading...
Free Research Paper On Learning And Memory
Arguably, memory is one of the elementary mental processes. As a matter of fact, Neuroscientists use diverse strategies to study the process, and demonstrate the link between memory and learning. Memory refers to the process of storing information in the brain for a long time. In fact, there is a connection between memory and learning; in that memory is one of the crucial concepts of learning. It is very difficult to imagine an individual trying to learn without the process of memorizing. Hence, as a process, memory entails a dynamic mechanism that is associated with retrieval and retention of Continue reading...
Free Essay On The Ten Evidence-Based Practice Principles
Juvenile delinquency ranks among the top social menaces in the modern world. Apparently, the menace is rampant in the developed world, where young people are exposed to a variety of novel ways of doing things. The effectiveness of the juvenile justice programs has been a topic of concern for a considerably long time. According to gurus in the field of rehabilitation, the programs could be more effective if they embraced the ten evidence based practice principles and rehabilitation approaches (Martin, 2005). This paper discusses the ten principles in light of juvenile rehabilitation.
Assess the actuarial risk and need
In the context of juvenile rehabilitation, assessing Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Learning
Classical conditioning is a concept brought forth by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In classical conditioning, an animal or person learns through the means of associating one stimulus to a given stimulus. There is presence of an unconditional stimulus, which triggers a specific response. For instance, if an individual smells a favorite dish, he or she may get angry (Illeris, 2009). If the smell of this food is then associated with the ringing of a bell, an individual may still get angry even without the smell of the food as he or she conditions their mind to associate the Continue reading...
Essay On Phobias And Addictions
Development Through Operant or Classical Conditioning
Phobias and Addictions:
Development Through Operant or Classical Conditioning
How and why phobias and addictions develop are a continual area of research for psychologists and their colleagues in related fields. While many theories exist as to why people have phobias or become addicted, including genetic predisposition and others, the roles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning in the conditions of phobias and addictions is an important area to explore because it provides more information on why the conditions exist and new possibilities in treatment. Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning and addictions can be developed through operant conditioning, Continue reading...