A review of the article by Jankowska, et al., 2008, titled “Reduction of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit expression by modified U1 snRNA caused apoptosis in cervical cancer cells”
Jankowska, et al in their article published in the journal “Molecular Cancer” demonstrate the expression of hCG-beta in cervical cancer and examine the functional significance of hCG- in-vitro cervical cancer cells by making use of modified U1snRNA to silence the mRNA of hCG-. Silencing of the maturation of mRNA by use of a novel silencing technique results in inhibition of growth and apoptosis of cervical cancer cells.
Lipofectamine 2000 and Continue reading...
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Genetics Critical Thinkings Samples For Students
Example Of Critical Thinking On Reduction Of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta Subunit Expression By Modified U1
A review of the article by Jankowska, et al., 2008, titled “Reduction of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit expression by modified U1 snRNA caused apoptosis in cervical cancer cells”
Good The Pros Of Using Genetically Modified Food Critical Thinking Example
Genetically modified foods refer to crop plant-produced human and animal use using the new molecular biology methods. The plants are adapted in the laboratory to enhance them with desired traits such as improved nutrition content and increased resistance to herbicides. The enhancement of the desired traits was traditionally got through breeding. Conventional plant breeding techniques are time consuming and at times may lack accuracy. Genetic engineering produces plants that have the desired traits and are fast and very accurate. For instance, plant geneticists can separate a gene responsible for drought tolerance and insert it in a different plant. The Continue reading...
Good Critical Thinking About Critical Analysis: Induction Of Amphiregulin By P53 Promotes Apoptosis Via Control
The p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene that is activated whenever a cell is subjected to cell damage. The p53 gene determines whether a cell should survive a damage or should undergo apoptosis. These decisions are regulated by posttranslational modifications. Phosphorylation of the serine 46 residue is one such modification that is relevant to this study. However, it is unclear why a Ser46 phosphorylated p53 favors apoptosis over survival (Feng et al. 2006, p. 2812; Taira et al. 2014, p. 717).
Studies have shown that the elusive molecular mechanism of Ser46 phosphorylation of p53 induce apoptosis Continue reading...
The Nature And Nurture Debate Critical Thinking Sample
Why are people the way that they are? This is not just one of the central questions of psychology; it is one of the ancient questions of life. Why are some people happy most of the time? Why do others seem sad most of the time? All of these questions poke at the heart of what makes a person the way that they are. In psychology this is known as the nature/nurture controversy. The nature/nurture controversy has been one of the central questions of psychology since the founding of the discipline. The answer of which is more powerful in Continue reading...
Hamiltons Rule: Analyzing Altruism In Competition Amongst Kin Critical Thinkings Example
Hamilton’s rule states that social behavior of organisms is supported by natural selection but only if rb-c>0, where r represents the genetic relatedness between actors and beneficiaries, b denotes the benefit that the social behavior confers on the beneficiary, and c is the cost that the social behavior imposes on the actor (Alonso, 2002). It is important to note that the rule suggests that the cost will most certainly diminish the appropriateness of the agent and on the other hand that the benefits will increase the suitability of the agent. Although this is the case, the rule Continue reading...
Intelligence, Race, And Genetics Critical Thinking Example
According to this article, it is impossible to establish a relationship between intelligence, race and genetics. This article argues that scientists who have found this relationship did not base it on scientific analysis, but on folk taxonomies. Many scientists fail to agree on the definition of intelligence, and this, further compounds the idea of finding a relationship. Race on the other hand, is not a scientific term and does not have a scientific definition. Finding the relationship between other constructs and race would therefore not serve any scientific purpose, but rather social ends.
So far, scientists have not conclusively Continue reading...
Genetic Tests: Are They For You Critical Thinking Example
In “Am I My Genes?” Dr. Robert Klitzman states that there are about 5,000 diseases where there is good genetic data available for a pre-disposition for that disease (Donovan, 2012). In “Cracking Your Genetic Code” the program states that having some mutations, like the one for Huntington ’s disease is absolute, while other mutations just show an increased chance of the disease, which is much harder to interpret (Nova, 2012). Further, it should be realized that different sequencing companies at this point look at different parts of the genes so the results can be contradictory.
In “Personal DNA Continue reading...
Criminal Law Critical Thinking Examples
The cause of criminal behavior can be attributed under two theories namely, the Positivist and Classical. Under the Positivist theory, it can be referred to the deviant behavior of every human being is based on the one’s genetic composition. The intrinsic evil qualities of every individual will force him or her to give in to the criminal behavior. The logical explanation for this theory is that the criminal mind has a close connection to the biosocial perspective which includes the physiological and biological traits acquired by birth. On the other hand, the theory under the Positive Continue reading...
Free Critical Thinking On Biology Questions
1. There are certain situations where we practice selective behavior that favors certain traits. A lot of times when individuals are acting as a member of certain groups, their actions are usually tailored towards being in conformity with those of other members of the same group. For instance a prominent member of a certain professional organization may decide to listen to a particular brand of music and because other members of the group interact with the individual and look forward to them as an important personality, others might also want to listen to the same brand of music. Also, Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Cancer
The epidermal growth factor belongs to the HER family receptor tyrosine kinases and it regulates cell differentiation and cell growth and interlinked with several human cancers. The signal transductions in the cells are controlled by EGFR. It is one of the oncogene which is involved in producing cancers via over expression of the ligands and the continuous activation and amplification of EGFR. The activity of the EGFR can be reduced by monoclonal antibodies against them. The activation of the EGFR is activated by binding of the transforming growth factor. The EGFR binds to receptor of HER family in order Continue reading...
Biology: Testing In Advance For Genetic Disease Critical Thinking Examples
Genetic testing definitely covers an array of the various techniques which include the DNA and the RNA. Hence in this overview, genetic testing is used as a tool that detects gene variants which are associated with the various specific diseases or rather disorders in the body. According to Chapter 14 which explains the Testing in Advance for Genetic Disease of the Medical Ethics 213 book. The book concerning the relevant genetic tests that are carried out to detect and relatively confirm the various diagnosis in the human body. It further illustrate the concept the importance of testing in advance Continue reading...
Example Of Cancer Critical Thinking
The lung cancer is of primary concern among western population in the western world by virtue of exaggerated rate of smoker compared to non smokers. The pathology of lung cancer comprises of genomic instability resulting in abnormalities over a long span. The variations occur at gene level via process called as gene silencing mediated methylation; amplification of DNA, sequence changes in DNA along with looses and gains of whole chromosome. The genetic alterations observed in cell lung cancer contain a loss of regions which are in turn part of the genome especially chromosomes 9p and 3p and it is Continue reading...
The Generation Of Ips Cells From Somatic Cells Critical Thinking Examples
Compare and Contrast On IPS Papers
All the four papers Takahashi-miPS, Takahashi-hiPS, Park-hiPS and Yu-hiPS respectively induced the four genes (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and MYC) and reprogramming the differentiated somatic cells to produce IPS pluripotency cells. In the first paper, the authors found a combination of factors to make the IPS cells. The authors selected the 24 genes for factors that induce pluripotency in somatic cells. Afterwards, all the 24 genes were inserted into the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) by using retroviral transduction. The cells were cultured on STO feeder cells in ES cell medium containing G418. The authors obtained 24 colonies, and then the Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Ethical Considerations In Genetics And Genomics
Working as a medical practitioner requires a keen observation of ethical controversies regarding patient confidentiality as defined in the medical code of conduct and ethics. However, there are some instances when medical practitioners are faced with a dilemma of disclosing patient’s confidence data as stated in the HIPAA incidental disclosures regulation. Some instances are where there is a third party who may be affected by the consequential withholding of the patient’s private medical history especially in case of hereditary and deadly transmitted diseases.
The ethical dilemma in this case involves a patient, Mrs. Joan Smith with ovarian/breast Continue reading...
Example Of Nanog Method Critical Thinking
The paper describes how modern molecular biology methods are applied to identify a new protein called Nanog. They found the sequence of this new protein and determined that it is directly involved in the controlling mechanisms for self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. The authors were able to demonstrate that Nanog, as opposed to other previously described proteins that are also involved in self-renewal, works independently an in the absence of external factors like cytokines. Their results also showed that Nanog is not always being produced in the cell; its production is restricted to the events of cell Continue reading...
What Are We Eating A Brief, Objective Analysis Of Food Production And Technology Critical Thinking Sample
Human population growth over the last few centuries has skyrocketed to a level previously unseen in human history. Although a wealth of new technologies now exist to make life easier and the overall standard of living higher, scientists and consumers alike are facing ever-increasing ethical questions regarding the intersection of consumable items and technology.
Food production changed forever during the Industrial Revolution, a western social, technological, and philosophical movement that spanned the late eighteenth and entirety of the nineteenth century (Underhill). Technological innovations like the cotton gin and the steam engine allowed for more effective food harvesting, while agricultural Continue reading...
Ethical Considerations In Genetics And Genomics Critical Thinking
Ethical issues at the hospitals that prohibit nurses, doctors or any medical practitioner to disclose a patient’s personal data and information has created several dilemma cases especially if there is an exposed person who might be affected in some way if the information is withheld. This is mostly more difficult when the patient fails to willingly inform the other people especially family members or spouses and the medical practitioner is left with a choice of whether to disclose the information or just keep quite. Such scenarios where the ethical duty to disclose privacy data for the patient and Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Critique Of Alcohol Addiction
According to the American Medical Association (AMA), alcohol addiction or alcohol dependence is defined as a primary, chronic disease with psychological, genetic, and environmental factors influencing its manifestations and development.
Alcohol addiction is characterized by:
- Lack of ability to control use of alcohol
- An extended period of heavy, frequent alcohol use
- Physical dependence manifested by withdrawal symptoms when the individual stops using alcohol
- A variety of legal and social problems arising from the use of alcohol
- The need or tolerance to use more and alcohol to achieve the same effects
Alcoholism and alcohol dependence Continue reading...
The Article On Polymorphism Of The Gene Critical Thinking Examples
The hypothesis of the research is brilliant in that the role played by genetic factors in peptic ulcer pathogenesis is not clearly understood. This is despite the fact that peptic ulcers have caused many deaths across the globe. However, the research background does not use past studies to indicate that there is a correlation between C3435T polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene and susceptibility to peptic ulcers. Therefore, the research background does not link well with the research hypothesis.
The research methodology shows that the research subjects are drawn from various ages, and both genders are well represented. Genotype distribution Continue reading...
Wright R 1989 Biology Through The Eyes Of Faith New York Harperone Press Critical Thinking Examples
Question Number One:-
a) Sexual reproduction is defined as the formation of new organisms following the coming together of two independent gametes. Its main advantages includes the ability to produce wide ranging amounts of genetic diversity and ability to establish variable offspring’s that are different from the original parents, hence having high probability of survival in the changing environments . Other notable advantages include the ability to be reproduce offspring’s that develop from two parents ,hence reduced chances of inheriting deleterious mutations.
b) In my own perspective, I tend to ascertain that genetic testing to select embryos with Continue reading...
Critical thinking on Darwins Theory of Evolution
Darwin’s theory of evolution focuses principally on the several stages that man took to evolve into the human being that we know today. He focuses on the importance of adaptation to conditions of life through a series of evolutionary steps which perhaps cannot be scientifically proven totally but provide the best explanation to how we actually became what we are today. In actual fact Darwin was never insistent on proving that his theory was a fact as it remained what it was which was a theory. However as time went by and with the discovery of genetics, we Continue reading...
Example Of Benefits Of Genetic Engineering Versus The Potential Risks Critical Thinking
BENEFITS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING VERSUS THE POTENTIAL RISKS
Introduction and Benefits
Genetic engineering is the deliberate scientific modification of organism’s characterization by manipulation of its genetic material. On the part of economics, there has been a steady increase in the revenues from genetically modified crops. Also the global sales of these crops have also been matched by increase in sales of gene-based medicines. Scientists have developed crop that are more yielding, more resistance to diseases and pests and also more resistant to adverse climatic conditions especially drought leading to more economic power to farmers globally. Genetic engineering and technology have ensured that animals, especially human babies Continue reading...
Example Of Gattaca Critical Thinking
This paper gives a brief account of the contents of the movie Gattaca. The paper represents a critical analysis of eugenics and genetic engineering as related to the movie. However, the main issue comprehensively discussed is the dangers of such technologies if they were not restricted
Gattaca is a world that represent a time when eugenics and genetic engineering has turn out to be the standard advancement to reproduction. The society entails a tradition of self-advancement via the means of genetic determinations, a caste scheme of valid and in-valids in addition to societal prejudice rooted in genetics. This sterilized Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Breast Cancer The Role Of Genetics
Breast cancer is a type of disease where certain breast cells develop abnormally mostly in the milk ducts and lobules leading to formation of tumors. The exact cause of breast cancer is a topic that has flavored many debates and researches but still remains unknown. However a plethora of research has established that certain risk factors have a direct linkage with breast cancer. Breast cancer related risk factors are wide and varied and may include lifestyle choices like smoking/ diet or factors that are beyond the control of a person like gender, age or family history. It Continue reading...
India: Genetically Modified No More Critical Thinking
According to the World Food Programme (2012), almost 870 million people do not have the capacity to eat enough, majority of them living in developing countries. At least 564 million of the world’s hungry people currently reside in Asia or Oceania. In terms of gender, women comprise 60% of the entire number of the world’s hungry. Children have also been a victim of hunger around the globe as it fostered malnutrition and under nutrition, killing five million kids under the age of five from developing nations (World Food Programme, 2012). There have been proposals that most of the nations having problems producing food alternatives such as the use of GMOs or Genetically Modified Organisms for food production. While GMOs could indeed resolve the problem of global food production to satiate world hunger, the drastic environmental and physical effects it could bestow on any country that would harvest GMOs can both contaminate and foster disease for biodiversity and the planet.
Distributive Justice In Healthcare For American Substance Abusers Critical Thinking Samples
(Student’s Full Name)
“meeting the health needs of all persons, viewed as free and equal citizens, is of comparable and special moral importance” –Justice and Access to Health Care, Norman Daniels
The above statement expresses the sentiments of persons who concur with the idea that there should be universal access to healthcare. The concept of distributive healthcare prevents this from taking place since it subjects persons to a screening process to determine their eligibility for certain types of healthcare. Additionally, distributive healthcare also promotes discrimination of persons, even substance abusers, in need of dire care at hospitals Continue reading...
Values and Beliefs Critical Thinking
Bipolar depression or in other words known as maniac depression disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis which categorically describes mood disorder defined by presence of episodes of abnormality elevated energy levels , mood, and cognition with or without depression episodes. Moods which are elevated are referred to as mania from a clinical point of view and as hypomania if it is milder. Commonly individuals who go through maniac episodes experience depression episodes, or mixed episodes or symptoms, whereby features of both depressions and mania are present at the same time. Periods of ‘normal’ mood separate these episodes though in some individuals, mania and depression may change rapidly, a situation known as rapid cycling. Psychotic symptoms such as hallucination and delusion are sometimes observed as a result of extreme episodes of maniac. Onset of full symptoms occurs late in young adulthood or adolescent stage.(Bendelow 2005)
The Theory Of Biological Evolution Critical Thinking
Biological evolution is termed as any genetic change in a population that is passed on over successive generations. These genetic variations are not consistent as they may be large or small, prominent or not noticeable at all. To sum it up, biological evolution highlights how life has changed over time. Arguments of this theory have been advanced by Charles Darwin. His premise was of a scientific nature where he postulated biological evolution by means of Natural Selection. Charles Darwin’s Natural Selection is based on three assumptions about organisms namely: survival, adaptation and reproduction. This theory, however, has received Continue reading...
Darwin's Legacy: Variation, Natural Selection, And The Perpetual Struggle For Existence Critical Thinking Example
In an age of scientific advancement, it is easy to take for granted a number of widely-held facts and theories that have been largely substantiated by scientific inquiry. One of these fundamental theories is the theory of evolution-- much of science and medicine is built upon the foundation of evolutionary theory. Without an understanding of evolutionary theory, modern medicine would not have advanced to the point that it has; humanity's ability to produce vaccines and do work on genetic diseases and stem cells would be severely curtailed, if not impaired entirely. Indeed, without Darwin's introduction of evolutionary theory, humanity's Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On Philosophy
According to Kass, he defines genetic screening as the process in which expectant women undergo to save their children from generic abortion. Kass believes that the women who undergo such problems, their fetus normally have genetic defects. It is believes that if Generic diseases are normally inherited diseases and in most cases, it is advised for the whole family to go through the process to save the children from acquiring the diseases. According to Kass, he picks his arguments about the generic problems but he is selective about abortion. He argues that, even if the fetus Continue reading...
Good Global Foundation For Leadership And Character Critical Thinking Example
Achieving individual fulfillment is a process that is often determined by obtaining a sense of identity. Etymologically, heritage has been perceived as a relationship that involves exchange. It can be defined as the quality of values, principles and beliefs, which are passed from one generation to another. These qualitative aspects of life are usually negotiated and adjusted with time. The choice to maintain heritage implies belief in some aspects of the past, which builds and motivates the events of a time in the future.
I believe that the upbringing that children receive from their parents shapes their personality and Continue reading...
Free Human Brain And Criminology Critical Thinking Example
Human behaviour is a complex topic that has continued to remain unfound in its entirety. A human being may act in a certain way without themselves and others knowing why that particular individual acted in such a manner. In Brain on Trial, David Eagleman tries to explain the relationship that exists between neuroscience and criminal acts, and how this information can be used to build a better society with a justice system that is not ignorant of the facts of advances in brain science. This information can better equip those in the justice system to understand better why crimes Continue reading...
Is Gay Marriage Detrimental To The Sanctity Of Marriage Critical Thinking Examples
Before you are some basic arguments against gay marriage: The first is that it defies what is believed to be an ancient tradition that has always been that of the union of a man and a woman. That definition is very basic and the general idea is if this rule which was supposedly created by god there will be negative consequences. What really is the peril of altering the definition of marriage, will god get angry?
Seemingly god created gay people so why should he be mad when they try to attain the same standards of living as straight Continue reading...
Example Of Critical Thinking On Opinions On Marijuana
Marijuana legalization and/or use is a controversial topic. While it is already legal in some places, notably Amsterdam, and measures are being introduced in some parts of the United States to gradually liberalize its acceptance and use (medical marijuana is legal in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and other states, for example), it is still a long way from general public acceptance. In this paper, I will interview three different people about their opinions on marijuana. The names of the people interviewed have been changed to protect their identities, as this topic is fairly controversial and the opinions expressed were often Continue reading...
Critical Thinking On What Is Ethnopharmacolgy
What two classes of drugs does most of ethnopharmacologic research focus on? Ethnopharmacology focuses its major research on antihypertensive agents due to prevalence of hypertension and heart complications among minority populations and psychotropic agents. The study is based on uncovering the differences in how metabolism of the drugs occurs in different ethnicities. It entails discovering the effects of the drugs on patients and how the drugs are taken by the body in terms of the speed of absorption, assimilation, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetics).
Ethnopharmacology is the assesment of the effects that lifestyle, cultural practices, physiology and environment have on Continue reading...
Good Example Of Critical Thinking On Medical Surgical Nursing
Oxygen therapy refers to administration of oxygen to a patient as a medical intervention. The purposes can vary in care for both chronic and acute patients. It is normally used when a patient is hypoxic and is unable to supply his or her cells with enough oxygen through normal respiratory processes. The delivery system chosen depends on the age of the patient, humidification needs, oxygen requirements or the therapeutic goals, and, the patient’s tolerance to the selected interface.
(Roca, Riera, Torres, & Masclans, 2010). (Pauwels, Buist, Calverley, Jenkins, & Hurd, 2012).
The nursing actions needed to assist Mr. Jerrison’s Continue reading...
Arguments For Abortion Critical Thinking Sample
Abortion is defined as the act of clinically or surgically terminating pregnancy. A clinical abortion involves the use of medication to get rid of a pregnancy while a surgical abortion is carried out in the operating room whereby surgical equipments are used. There are many concerns on whether abortion should be permitted. Some people equate abortion to murder while others are neutral. This has resulted in two schools of thought; pro-choice and pro-life. Pro-choice are those who believe the woman should make a choice. On the contrary, pro-life are who believe abortion to murder. Therefore, it should not be Continue reading...
Complementary And Alternative Medicine For Stress And Anxiety Critical Thinkings Example
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to those medical substances and practices that are not the part of standard or conventional care. Complementary medicine is often used along with other standard medical treatment strategies or they can be used alone. CAM practices can be used for the relief in different problems such as heart diseases and cancer. It can also be used for certain psychiatric problems such as stress, anxiety, and depression, usually caused by different ecological factors such as risk and supportive factors related to parents, peers, and school. Different CAM practices can be used for the treatment Continue reading...
Sociology Of Sports Critical Thinking Example
Sports and gender is not quite phenomenal since it has lived on since time immemorial. Even so, gender inequality is something that has been sung for quite some time and some attempts have been made to try and level of the balance so that women can have the benefits that men seemingly enjoy. On many occasions, games that mainly feature men are the ones that have been invested ever since and only recently have they started to feature women in the respective games like football, rugby, athletics, and even handball. On many occasions, the global sports have tried to Continue reading...
Sample Critical Thinking On Race As A Social Constructivism
Race is a social construct that was developed to classify people into huge and different groups through ethnic, anatomical, cultural, genetic, historical, linguistic, geographical, and social attachment. Initially, race referred to people using a common language to identify national affiliations, but with time observable physical traits were used to denote race. The idea of race means that humans are divisible into biologically distinct and exclusive groups in terms of physical and cultural features. The ideology of race is also associated with the beliefs of the superiority of the whites. These beliefs were concretized during the scientific revolution and American Continue reading...