Both Huntington and Bowen anonymously agree that civilization that is embedded on ethnicity and cultural diversity is and will remain the root cause for the world conflict. They refute the claims that global conflict arise from economic and political struggles. Most of their discussion reveals that important future conflicts will capitalize on the points of weakness that exist between various forms of civilization.
Historically, differences in civilization among different communities have led to very fierce global conflict and violence. Both Huntington and Bowen agree that historical violence and conflict have resulted from not from ethnic diversity but nationalism activities.