Over all the chapter number, 14 was very interesting and relatively easy to understand than other chapters. It was because of some easy concepts such as mean and variation that we had learnt many times before this, as well. However, the most interesting concept among all the topics discussed in the chapter was about editing the collected data before analyzing it. This was a short topic but still attracted my attention the most. Perhaps, the reason behind this was I felt this was one ...

# Hypothesis College Essays Samples For Students

454 samples of this type

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This chapter introduces the need occasioning by a theoretical framework after a literature review. An issue I found interesting is on how the theoretic framework serves as the basis of the hypothesis developed by the research. To commence, a theoretical framework is explained as the belief an individual holds on the relationship between phenomena. The explanation forwarded by the individual on how these phenomena are related is the theory. The relationship and the theory have to be in agreement with previous research carried out in the problem area. Building a theoretical framework, therefore, includes the process of introducing variables, developing a model that describes ...

As the name suggests, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique that analyses relationship between different groups of data to find out or reject similar patterns and tries to establish or reject a relationship. It is one of the most used statistical techniques among the statistical and research community across the globe.

First before using ANOVA a researcher or statistician needs to understand and define what he or she needs to find out. For example, a researcher may want to find out if there is any correlation between rainfall and GDP growth rate. Once that is identified the researcher finalizes what is ...

## The Dow Jones Industrial Average Yearly Return I have obtained from the following table:

http://www.1stock1.com/1stock1_139.htm

## We use the last column.

The U.S. GDP growth rate is below:

## We use third column.

- Compute the average, standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of each of the variables. In addition, graph the values of the DJIA on the percentage grow rate of the GDP.

I use Minitab 16 statistical software to complete this question:

## Descriptive Statistics: GDP per capita growth, %; Dow Jones Rate

Variable Mean StDev CoefVar

GDP per capita growth, % 1,755 1,994 113,65

Dow Jones Rate 9,67 15,24 157,63

- Compute a 95% confidence interval for the population mean of each variable.

## One-Sample T: GDP per capita growth, %; Dow Jones Rate

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95% CI

GDP ...

## Head size and intelligence: A correlational study

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between head size and intelligence. A cross-sectional research design was used in the study. Twenty (20) respondents with ages from 12-18 years were purposively selected. Ages, head circumferences and IQ scores were obtained from each of the respondents. One way ANOVA revealed a no significant difference among the respondents in reference to their ages, head sizes and intelligence (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed a no significant relationship between the respondents’ head circumferences and IQ scores (R2 = 0.002). Thus, this study concluded that having large head size doesn’t account for one’s ...

## Consumption and Metabolism1–3 Analytical Summary

The main topic addressed by this review is Fructose and whether or not the fructose hypothesis is valid. It presents new information that (at the very least) arouses the consideration that fructose alone is not the evil culprit of diseases for which it was blamed. It suggests that fructose was unfairly evaluated. This is based on the fact that fructose is ingested alongside of other causative agents such as food additives, fats, other types of sugars and preservatives. Meanwhile, none of the other additives were put on trial in the same manner. He positions the reader to consider that ...

## Exercise Two

The one way Anova test results are listed above (See excel file). Before beginning the one way Anova, the main assumptions are: all groups are normally distributed and have equal variances. We have three different groups: type one, type two and type three. Within the groups degree of freedom is df1=37 and between group’s degree of freedom is df2=2. At 5% level of confidence the f-value calculated is greater than the tabulated (critical value) of F. That is, 5.5774>3.2516, hence the null hypothesis is rejected. The variances for the three types of groups are significantly different.

The ...

## Introduction

In this paper we will discuss what have we learned in mathematical statistics.

Mathematical statistics is a branch of mathematics, which is developing methods for recording, describing and analyzing the data of observations and experiments in order to construct probabilistic models of random mass phenomena. Depending on the mathematical nature of the concrete results of observations divided by the mathematical statistics Statistics numbers, multivariate statistical analysis, the functions (processes) and time series, Statistics non-numeric objects of nature.

There are three parts of mathematical statistics: descriptive statistics, estimation theory and the theory of testing hypotheses. Descriptive statistics is the ...

- Why is the coefficient of correlation an important tool for statisticians? Provide some specific examples from real life.

Correlation (from Lat. Correlatio - ratio, the relationship), correlation - a statistical relationship between two or more random variables (or variables that can with some reasonable degree of accuracy considered as such). When this change in the values of one or more of these quantities are accompanied by systematic variation, or other values of other variables. Mathematical measure of correlation between two random variables is the correlation ratio, or the correlation coefficient r. If the change of a random variable does ...

- Describe a situation where a Goodness-of-Fit Test could be used

We know, that chi-square goodness-of-fit test is a non-parametric test which helps us to understand if there is a significant difference between observed and expected frequencies of some experiment.

## Where f0 are observed frequencies, fe are expected frequencies.

For example, consider the coin tossed 100 times with the result of 65 tails and 35 heads. We want to test hypothesis if the coin is symmetric. If the coin is symmetric, then expected frequencies will be 50 and 50.

So,

X 2Pearson = (Oi-Ei) 2/Ei = (65-50) 2/50 + (35-50) 2/50 = 2*225/50 = 9.

The resulting value should be compared with ...

Wolfs (2013), describes the scientific method as the process of creating a reliable and consistent representation of a theory or hypothesis by actively eliminating all personal prejudice and bias from the person researching the theory, using the observation-hypothesis-prediction-experiment model. It involves the observation and description of a phenomenon followed by formulation of a hypothesis to explain that phenomenon. By using this hypothesis, the scientist attempts to predict the existence of new phenomenon especially as pertains to new observations. Finally, other independent scientists perform further and deeper experiments on these predictions.

The scientific method was important in the technological advances realized during the ...

## The application of ethical practices in the Central Intelligence Agency is inadequate.

Hypothesis

The ethical application in the Central Intelligence Agency is inadequate.

Research questions

Does the Central Intelligence Agency apply ethics in its practices?

Is the ethical framework adequate?

Is there need to legislate on the ethics necessary in the operations of the Agency?

Null Hypothesis

The ethical application in the Central Intelligence Agency is adequate.

Independent variable

The Central Intelligence Agency has an ethical practice.

Dependent variable

The dependent variable is the adequacy of the ethical practices in application within the agency.

Conceptual definition

The current ...

A relationship of dependency between two variables in the scope of statistics is termed as linear correlation. When the response of one variable is dependent upon how the second variable is treated then it is safe to assume they are correlated. As given the heart rate and smoking are said to be linearly correlated. This point suggests that the number of cigarettes smoked would either increase or decrease an individual’s pulse.

The hypothesis in the question states that as a person smokes more cigarettes his/her pulse rate is likely to increase alongside. However, the conclusion only suggests that ...

It is apt that use of binomial distributions on probability has sundry applications. They can be used in Businesses, Engineering mechanics, Marketing institutions, and other fields such as in Governmental Organizations. Determining if one brand of a product is preferred than the other, is an aspect of hypothesis testing. A hypothesis can be defined as a guess, which the claim is interested in proofing as either true or false.

In this essay discussion, a hypothesis test will be carried out using statistical means, and other methods to either support the claim or decline it. There are two ways of presenting a hypothesis. ...

## Anger is Heat

This is something that makes us angry or something that makes our blood boil. If there is something that makes a person angry, it burns him up and angry feeling, which slowly develops into something more powerful, can be described as a slow burn. A person who is angry is described as breathing fire, ablaze, hot under the collar, or frazzled. An angry person can also be described as boiling, heated, steaming ears, steaming mad, or steamed-up.

## My hypothesis over this conceptual metaphor is confirmed based on my observations on people’s characteristics, as well.

Life is a Game

Relating life to the game is something that tells us that our lives go through different obstacles just like how ...

## Abstract

This paper contains t-test analysis for intrinsic motivation by gender and extrinsic motivation by position based on AIU survey data. In all the two cases, null hypothesis failed to be rejected.

## Introduction

Hypothesis refers to a speculative explanation or answer to research problem or question (Lourens & Bedeker, 2007). The process of statistically choosing competing hypotheses is referred to as hypothesis testing (Kruglanski & Higgins, 2003). Some of the statistical methods of testing hypothesis included t-test and z-test.

Null hypotheses

There is no significant difference between intrinsic motivation means of males and females

Ho: µmale -µfemale = 0

## Alternative hypothesis

There is significance ...

## Intro to Psychology Research – Statistics Paper

Introduction

In this paper we have to analyze students’ performance in completing two kinds of mathematical problems: addiction problems and subtraction problems. 100 math problems were given for 36 students, and their performance was tested in two different ways. The first way was to complete math tasks in an organized fashion to minimize task switching (Task A). The second way was in a disorganized fashion (Task B) – it requires a task switch for every problem attempted.

- Would you finish the test faster if you completed all of the addition problems first and all of the subtraction problems second?

...

With reference to Biological studies, homology is the presence of shared pedigree between living organisms in terms of evolution. The homology might be in terms of genetical constitution, or physical constitution, to name a few. Here, I have described the evolutionary homology between various phyla supporting the description with a phylogenetic tree.

Genetic code is the combination of DNA and RNA sequences that constitute the amino acid sequences used in the synthesis of an organism's proteins. It is the biochemical basis of heredity and generally, protein coding amino acids is very similar in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The principle differences occur ...

## Introduction

The study explored the homological characteristics of 22 species. The organisms were human, pygmy chimpanzee, common chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, white-handed gibbon, macaque (Cercopithecine monkey), horse, bison, cat, dog, bird, bat, frog, rattlesnake, alligator, fish, whale, wolf, pig, bacteria, and cow. The species were categorized as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, or amphibians. However, humans and apes were further classified as primates. Moreover, the research sought to determine whether the species share characteristics that link them to a common ancestor. The research hypothesis was that if the evolutionary path of the 22 organisms were traced, then a common ancestor would be observed.

## Universal Genetic Code

The ...

According to this research, the research question posed was, “How Can We Help Witnesses to Remember More?” The research tries to find a way in which they can help a witness to recall more things that might be much helpful for forensic analysis. The methodology used was the conduct of interviews and experimentation. They conducted several experiments to establish the different ways in which a witness may be helped to recall more things.

After the research, they found out that telling the witness to close their eyes to try to remember more things is much helpful. It came out that closing ...

## Capstone Project

Executive Summary

The hypothetical idea which has been chosen for this analysis is the establishment of a Bar BQ restaurant in an area, in which we have asked number of questions from the respondents to get an idea about their choice, and what sort of products they are intending to have in the market with us. We have found that age plays a dominating role in having the choice of foods, and it is also found that the stance of the company is very essential as far as managing the productivity is concerned.

## Introduction

Business Statistics is an important thing, and ...

in the Nineteenth Century

## Training and Working Conditions of Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century

Whenever Arts becomes the subject of conversation, the first thing that comes to mind is painting. Some of the famous painters we know while growing up are the likes of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Vincent van Goh, and Pablo Picasso. Notice that these painters are only men. Certainly, the masterpiece of daVinci, Mona Lisa, is a woman. However, we have yet to come up with at least an example of a woman painter.

Here, we find an interesting point of discussion. At first, it would seem a matter of gender equality. However, the subject is the Arts ...

## Assignment 7

1. So that we will know where 50% of his subjects are located (which is below the median), and the other 50% of his subjects are located (which is above the median).

2.

> y <- rnorm(16, 0,2)

> hist(y)

z=X-μσn=-0.4088-0.5216=-1.818

3.

> x <- rnorm(25,0,2)

> hist(x)

> mean(x)

[1] -0.660643

t=X-μsdn=-0.660643-0.5225≈-2.90

4. Number of degrees of freedom = 25 – 1 = 24

5.

t.test(x,alternative="two.sided",mu=0.25)

## One Sample t-test

data: x

t = -2.5001, df = ...

In this paper we will consider basic statistical concepts and hypothesis testing. The first step is to calculate mean, median and standard deviation of all variables in the given data sample. This means that we have to calculate descriptive statistics – measures of central tendency and measures of variance.

## Descriptive statistics and graphs are able to present data in the most convenient form for analysis.

Descriptive statistics allows summarizing the initial results obtained by observation or experiment. All calculations are reduced to descriptive statistics grouping data from their values, their frequency distribution of construction, identification of central tendency and distribution, finally, to the assessment of the spread of data in relation to the central tendency found.

...

It is evident that the communication method of non-verbal attribution is primarily consistent of attraction. This essay will explore in depth, this theory. The conventional study of how there is a reduced conversation with people of different attributes will be carried out to critically understand the functions that lie behind the success of attraction as the most successful method of alluring communication .

At the point when everything and everyone is obscure for people, they profoundly attempt to decrease this vulnerability by all the ways available. Humans, by nature, don't like the obscure, and have the characteristic will and inspiration ...

## Hypothesis:

A test to determine whether grasshopper breathes through spiracles and if earthworms have respiratory system.

Materials

Dissecting kit

Scalpel blade

Pins

Dissecting Microsoft

Forceps

Dissecting board

Procedure I

Take a mature grasshopper from the rearing cage

Place it on the dissecting board with the ventral position facing up

Fix the grasshopper on the board with pins and start dissecting from upper region of the chest going downwards.

Care should be taken not to distort the internal organs.

Open up the cut region by pinning the outer sections ...

## Efficient Market Hypothesis

Abstract

In search of the answer, if the markets are efficient, we discussed the three forms of market hypothesis and also the test results for each of them. The most relevant contribution came from the empirical evidence produced by Benz in 1981, where he observed that the smaller firms consistently achieved higher than risk adjusted indicating that markets are inefficient.

Efficient Market Hypothesis

Proposed by eminent finance professor Eugene Fama in 1970, Efficient Market Hypothesis has been identified and discussed under three forms of market efficiency and same are discussed below:

## Weak Form Hypothesis

The weak form of the ...

(Author)

## Philosophy

The Renaissance period found a good deal of interest in the physical world (Weckowicz 53). In 1510, Leonardo da Vinci developed several theories on the nature of the universe. In 1528, Jean Fernal, the French physician, calculated the size of the Earth. Nicolas Copernicus, a highly qualified Pole, observed motions of heavenly bodies, though he was not a practical astronomer. He found that heliocentric theory was more practical; Earth is actually rotating in an orbit around the sun. He retained many concepts of older theories such as spherical and finite universe, and perfectly circular shape of heavenly bodies. His heliocentric theory ...

## Abstract:

Face recognition is as old as human history itself. We are have always relied on our brain to help us identify faces we are familiar with. This functioning of the human mind has been used by researchers in developing technologies which is contributing to use the facial recognition system as a security measure. What started with biometric applications like iris scan and finger print scan is now being transformed into the facial recognition system. Today recognition of facial features is being adopted across industries and installations. A question that flows is which of the sexes recognize faces better. Is it ...

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

## Qualitative Research Designs

Qualitative research delves into experiences and attitudes of research subjects by answering questions about the “what”, “how” or “why” of a phenomenon.

## Strengths

It is based on subjective experiences of the researcher and his research subjects. Since the researchers do not know in advance what they are looking for, it is done at the initial stages of a research to get a comprehensive understanding of the potential causes of a problem(Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009)

## Weaknesses

Since it focuses on the subjective ...

## Statistical Assumptions of the Test

Chi - square is one of the most common when testing statistical hypotheses in the socio-economic and humanities research. Widespread use of this criterion is related to the capabilities of its flexible application. Unlike the parametric methods for applying the chi-square is not required to perform many assumptions and constraints related to use, for example, z, and t-tests. The data may be measured at any scale, including par; form of distribution also unimportant for this test.

The main assumptions is that the data must be simply random sampled, the sample size must be sufficiently large, expected cell count ( ...

In this paper I would like to test the relationship between the education level of respondent and total family income. That’s why I pick two variables – EDUC and INCOME and test the relationship between them.

## Null hypothesis: There is no association between the variables.

Alternative hypothesis: There is a significant association between the variables.

H0: ρ=0Ha: ρ≠0

## Set level of significance alpha at 5%:

α=0.05

The assumptions for correlation testing are that the pair of variables measured has a normal bivariate distribution population. Also, the correlation coefficient measures only linear associations, and only in case if the data is not heteroscedastic or has outliers.

## Test the correlation with SPSS:

CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=INCOME EDUC /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG /MISSING=PAIRWISE.

The obtained correlation ...

The Socratic Method is also known as the elenchic method or elenchus. It involves the use of questions in the process of discussion. The Socratic Method allows a person to obtain an opinion through posing a quasi-rhetorical question. Such a question triggers the next person to think. It provides him or her with the direction in which he or she should think. This only makes it easier for that person to provide answers. The main agenda is to guide the thinking process of a person. In this method, the inquirer dismisses every hypothesis that contradicts itself. Such continued elimination of ideas leads to a ...

The hypothesis test includes five distinct steps that may be followed in a specific order. In the first step, the researcher identifies a hypothesis that he would like to prove or disprove. The researcher will also formulate the alternative hypothesis which would be tested in case the original hypothesis does not stand true. In the second step, the researcher collects a random sample from the population which he would measure for the purpose of his study. Consequently, as a result of the second step, the relevant sample test statistic would be computed. Moving on to the third step, the researcher’s task is ...

Statistics is the study of how to collect numerical information, its organization, in-depth analysis, and the eventual interpretation of numerical information from data (Longnecker, 2001). It is the science of learning from various data, and of measuring, communicating uncertainty, controlling phenomena, thus providing the navigation that is essential for the course taken by advances in science and society. Statisticians normally apply statistical thinking and the methods of statistics to a wide range of social, scientific, and business endeavors. The areas where statistics is applied include biology, economics, engineering, marketing, medicine, education, sports, public health, and psychology among many others (Rice, ...

The term research refers to a chronological and scientific study into the matter or a topic of interest with a clearly set objective. It is to imply that the topic of study is subjected to a process of rigour and critical look and analysis. With the aim of confirming or disputing if, the theoretical base and foundation is true or null and void. There are different research pattern and approaches relative to the disciplines and fields of interest within the academic arena(Bader, 2005, p. 72). In sociology, the research process is so elaborate following a chronological order from the moment the research topic ...

## How mnemonic strategies of children differ from those of adults

Mnemonic strategies play a crucial role in strengthening retrieval and long-term retention of information. Several strategies are applicable in creating mnemonics (Goswami, 2008). For instance, one can use acronyms to cram a list of names. One can also decide to use acrostics to sharpen memory retention and information retrieval, where they use the first letters in sentences to help them retrieve a list of words. Rhyming is another important strategy. Essentially, these strategies should be used in learning.

Mnemonic strategies of children differ from those of adults (Goswami, 2008). Whereas children use simple strategies to enable them remember easily, adults use ...

## Independent Samples t-Test With SPSS

For this research we are interested to show the basic skills of hypothesis testing using SPSS 17 Statistical Software. We are given with the data set and should perform independent samples Student’s t-test via SPSS. To do this, one variable should be chosen as quantitative and one variable must be a factor variable. These two variables will be Age and Sex.

The null hypothesis is: There is no significant difference in age between males and females

The alternative hypothesis is: There is a significant difference in age between males and females.

H0: μ1=μ2Ha: μ1≠μ2

## This will be a two-tailed test.

Set the ...

This example involves a pharmaceutical company that is testing a new medication to change oxygenation levels. In one group the subjects received the experimental drug while in the other group the subjects did not receive the drug. Subjects in each group were then measured on oxygenation levels. This is not a reversal design in which the groups then are switched in terms of condition. Therefor it is an independent samples test, comparing the means for two different groups.

The question posed is whether the mean oxygenation level for Group I (treatment group), is the same as the mean oxygenation level for ...

In 2008, there was a financial crisis which affected most of us. Till now, some countries are still recovering, including the United States. The crisis led to higher unemployment rate, lower disposable incomes, and bad loans. In all these cases, the number of loans applied by the citizens of a country and approved by lending institutions is anticipated to be lower. This will be true until a time the borrowers have increasing confidence in paying off their debt if they apply for one, and the lenders have confidence that the loans will get paid back. This will be the case when they ...

## Introduction

In this paper we will discover the understanding of basic theories of mathematical statistics and learn how to use measures of central tendency and measures of variation. To do this, we choose two variables from the data set – one variable is continuous and one is nominal. Then we will explore if there any relationships regarding these variables – we perform a hypothesis testing using SPSS 17 Statistical Software. Charts and graphs are also will be used in this paper.

## Body

As a continuous variable we choose Total Family Income (INCOME)

As a nominal variable we take Race of Respondent (RACE).

We begin ...

## Introduction

Nursing practice is a phenomenon that has had significant growth in the past three decades. This growth is of essential significance to the healthcare development and growth of the nursing profession. The nursing profession is of great significance towards achievement of the millennium development goals; it is, therefore, important to note and analyze the systematic significance of the development in this sector. This paper seeks to hypothesize on a research study that was done in the period between 1970’s and 1980’s. It shows the data on how the nursing profession has had significant development over the years.

## Identify and Describe the Problem

Advancement in ...

I choose AGE variable and prepare SPSS syntax and output:

## Syntax:

GET FILE='D:\SPSS+ 'SPSS\gss04student_corrrected.sav'. >Warning. Command name: GET FILE >SPSS Statistics system file "D:\SPSS\gss04student_corrrected.sav" is written in a character encoding (windows-1252) >incompatible with the current LOCALE setting. It may not be readable. >Consider changing LOCALE or setting UNICODE on. (DATA 1721) EXAMINE VARIABLES=AGE /PLOT BOXPLOT HISTOGRAM NPPLOT /COMPARE GROUP /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /CINTERVAL 95 /MISSING LISTWISE /NOTOTAL.

Now it’s time for hypothesis testing. I choose nominal variable “SEX” and want to check the claim that there is a great difference in average age ...

The theory of the continental drift was proposed by the German geographer and geologist Alfred Wegener on basis of the accumulated scientific facts. He formulated the first scientific theory of the slow continental drift in 1912. He mentioned the numerous similarities in the geological structure of the continents and the generality of the fossilized flora and fauna in the geological past. The weighty proof also was the coincidence of the climate in the distant geological eras.

Alfred Wegener was born on first of November in 1880 in the center of Brooklyn in the family of the famous scientist. ...

Many researchers in the field of psychology have investigated the link between television and obesity in both children and adults. It has been hypothesized that watching television leads to obesity in multiple ways. Individuals have replaced physical activity with watching television while subsequently increasing unhealthy snacking habits and reducing sleep. According Epstein Valoski, Vara, et al (1995), trials designed to reduce children's TV use have found improvements in body mass index (BMI), body fat, and other inter-correlated measures (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-causes/television-and-sedentary-behavior-and-obesity/).

There is also evidence that reducing adult's hours watching television have reduced obesity and interrelatedness measures. According to Otten, ...

## Introduction

The study intended to compare the academic performance of male students and female students. The variable for measuring performance was the GPA of individual students. Therefore, the study sought to compare the GPA of male students and the GPA of female students. The study used a sample instead of the population. Population refers to all elements that are of interest to the researcher whereas a sample is a sub-section of the population. In this case, there were two populations of interest to the researcher. The two populations were all male students in the school and all female students in the school.A sample ...

## Assignment 3

1. Make a conjecture about some facet of sports.

a. For example, “Curtis Granderson is a less good hitter when facing left-handed pitching.”

b. Choose an example with a clear, dichotomous definition of success; e.g. “he gets a hit, not an out.” This is your dependent variable, and it is given in the columns of the table.

c. The independent variable (e.g. type of pitching) goes in the rows of the table. It must also be dichotomous for this assignment.

2. Write you hypothesis in the space provided on the assignment template.

3. Write the null hypothesis in ...

ID Number

## Introduction

The case study involves a bottling company. The main purpose of conducting this research is to investigate concerning the validity of customer’s complaints that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Thirty bottles were pulled off the line at random from all the shifts at the bottling plant.

## Hypotheses:

H0: The bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces.

H1: The bottle contains more than sixteen (16) ounces.

Results of the Calculation

In calculating the mean, the sum of all the data ...

Research in the scientific sense means conducting a methodical study to answer a certain question or to support a hypothesis. The central goal of this process is discovery of a definite answer to the given issue/problem. The process of scientific research should always be systematic, following certain steps along a protocol, which varies in different fields of knowledge. To conduct properly research, it is necessary to successfully organize the process, plan it consistently and identify the questions that have to be answered. Research does not stop at the stage of discovery of some data or making some observations, as it also requires certain opinion ...

The statement that the goal of science is to increase the number of truths known is in itself problematic. Science aims primarily at enhancing understanding regardless of future applications of the understanding of the phenomena in question. Thus, even if a phenomenon is known to be true or rather considered true this does not suffice as far as science is concerned. Even factors considered truths are still subject to stringent scrutiny by science in order to ascertain the degree to which their assumption of being true holds. Therefore, the goal of science is not just to increase the number of ...

Alpha level refers to the risk of falsely rejecting the null hypotheses, such as there is no difference between variables, treatments or groups. In other words, it amounts to making Type 1 errors. Usually, in experimental designs the alpha level of 0.05 is used which implies a 5% percent chance of rejecting a true hypothesis. It also means that there is a 5% chance that the results in an experiment were obtained randomly- something that experimenters attempt to avoid totally.

However, in certain investigations, an alpha level of lower or higher than the commonly used 0.05 might be set. With lower ...

Once a study question has been identified, it is essential to formulate a hypothesis. A research question is a broad statement that includes all the variables that are to be considered in the study, while the hypothesis is a statement that details the specific relationship expected to be observed while examining the variables in a specific study.

While formulating a hypothesis, a researcher has to consider the values that form the basis of a good hypothesis. Good hypothesis must be able to identify the dependent and independent variables; it has to specify the nature of the relationship that exists between the dependent and the independent variable. ...

## Introduction

Water is an amenity and indeed a necessity of the human being. Different epidemic waterborne diseases are due to scarcity of safe drinking water in the world. Water being essentially associated with the earth’s ecosystems can be studied in the context of its relative terms. The human rights emphasis on implementation of global environmental justice and force to adopt such approach that make sure the universal access of people to safe and potable water. That means water should free from contaminations including chemicals and hydrocarbon as detergents, oil and so forth. Ground water contamination is usually found in arid ...

Paired sample t-test is done when an experiment contains matched pair of subjects, like patients before and after some drug is administered to them. Some kind of treatment is given to the subjects and the effects are measured before and after the treatment. The outcomes are thereafter analyzed pair-wise. It’s a parametric test. Here each subject is used as their own control. This way, the correct rejection of the null hypothesis (that there was no effect of the treatment) is much easier, and the statistical power of the test is increased as the random intra-patient variation have now been ...

Utilitarianism offers a moderately clear system for choosing the ethically right blueprint for any specific circumstance we may end up. To find what we should do in any circumstance, we first recognize the different approaches that we could perform. Second, we focus the majority of the predictable profits and damages that would come about because of each one approach for everybody influenced by the activity (Mill 23). Also, third, we pick a game plan that gives the best profits after the expenses have been required into account. Utilitarianism is an exertion to give a response to the handy inquiry "What should a man ...

The scientific method is a general process by which all scientists gain knowledge by considering questions in a methodical way. There are five general steps to this process.

The first step of the scientific method involves observing phenomena. In other words, the scientist has to decide what it is he wants to know. This requires him to observe the world around him, and to focus in on his particular area of interest.

The second step in the scientific method involves creating a hypothesis, which essentially addresses the topic in which the scientist is interested and about which he has made ...

## Question 1

- The respondent: This is the person who provides responses to questions asked by the researcher regarding a particular variable. The respondent can be a source of error if they fail to give a response either because they are unwilling or due to lack of knowledge in the subject area. They could also be a source of error by giving biased responses either by deliberately giving false answers or by unconscious misrepresentation.

- The situation: current situation poses different factors that may affect the results of a research. A good example is the presence of a third party present during an interview. The third ...

## 4-May-14

Back Ground; 2

Lietarure Review; 3

Purpose of Study 6

Refined Research question; 6

Finalized data sources; 7

Refined Hypothesis & Variables 7

Operational Definition of Key Variable / Concept; 7

Hypothesis 1; 8

Hypothesis 2 8

Data Analysis Technoque; 8

Activity Chart; 8

## References; 10

A study of the impact of parent's occupational engagement on child care and development

Back Ground;

The presented methodology aims to develop a research-based study on the impact of full time occupational engagements of parents outside the home on the characteristics of their children. An ...

1. Empirical Exercise (chapter 4, 4.3)

a. Edi =13.93373-0.064855 Disti

(0.0678954) (0.0240502)

The intercept β0 is 13.93373. The estimated coefficient of Distance (β1) is -0.64885. The regression predicts that if colleges are built 10 miles closer to the high schools, years of completed education increase by 0.64855 years.

b. Prediction for Bob: Ed = 13.93373-0.064855*2= 13.80402 years

If Bob lived 10 miles from college, then the result would be as following: Ed = 13.93373-0.064855*1= 13.868875 years

c. No, the distance for college does not explain a large fraction of the variance, because the estimated R2 ...

## Introduction

Research is usually carried out to determine or examine a relationship between two or more variables. The variables may be related to each other or may not have any relationship at all. When a variable is related to the other, statistically they are said to have a correlation. Correlation may be positive or negative. For a negative correlation, that means that the two or more variables are not strongly related to each other, while for a positive correlation, then it means that they depend on each other in a strong relationship.

In this essay discussion, a discussion will be based on looking at the two samples ...