ABSTRACT – Genetic engineering now has straight forward ecofriendly strategies to produce transformation in plasmids. The transformation process allows engineers to introduce DNa with specific desired capabilities into a host plasmid. In this way plants can be created that are able to resist a particular enemy or stressor without having to use toxics like herbicides and insecticides. The bacteria E. Coli was used to determine whether it can be made resistant to ampicillin or not. AmpR was integrated into the host cells and the tracer, GFP was used to identify expressed cells. The laboratory demonstrated that transformation by plasmids Continue reading...
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Bacteria Reports Samples For Students
Transformation Of Bacteria And Genetic Engineering Report Examples
Pathogens And Virulence Reports Example
Most of the microorganisms naturally present in the human body are harmless commensals. However, there also exists other disease causing microorganisms known as pathogens and the mechanism by which they cause disease is known as pathogenesis. These pathogens persist or multiply within the host causing infection. Some pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa are considered as opportunistic pathogens that cause disease only in patients with compromised immunity and only under certain conditions. The infectious diseases may be treated with antibiotic drugs. However, it is important to know the different types of pathogens and the virulence factors by which they cause disease Continue reading...
Free Report About Biology
Effect of lemon, garlic, and whole Jalapeño pepper on Bacillus
Most of the commonly used fruits and spices have been studied for their possible antimicrobial properties. Spices can be defined as the plant substances that are used to increase the flavor. They may include leaves such as mint and coriander, flowers such as clover, bulbs such as turmeric and garlic, fruits such as pepper and lemon, stems such as cinnamon, and rhizomes such as ginger. These plants can have some bioactive molecules having both antibacterial and antifungal properties. Extracts from plants such as garlic and lemon are effective Continue reading...
Free Antimicrobial Effect Of Lemon, Garlic And Whole Jalapeno On Bacillus In A Disk Diffusion Report Sample
Lab report #
In recent times, synthetic antibiotics have caused resistance in microorganisms and also, have shown unwanted side-effects. This has demanded for alternate therapies to combat infections. Scientists have developed interest in plant extracts, especially the ones that are traditionally used as spices, for new antimicrobial agents. Spices are traditionally used to give a distinctive flavor to the food but, they also contain potential antimicrobials which are also documented in literature. Even Louis Pasteur demonstrated the antibacterial effect of garlic and onion extracts. Salsa contains three main ingredients which have potential antimicrobial compounds. First, Lemon (Citrus Limon) is reported to Continue reading...
Free Materials And Methods Report Sample
Identification of mystery microbe based on its morphology and biochemical properties
The experiment was conducted to detect the species of a given mystery microbe. The microbe was subjected to a battery of tests in order to identify its physical and biochemical characteristics. Based on the tests, different possible microbe species were eliminated to finally arrive at the right conclusion. The possible microbes included Escherichia coli, Providencia alcalifaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia marcescens, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Sarcina aurantiaca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus licheniformis.
The first test conducted was to detect the Gram staining properties of the given microbe. This helped in identifying whether the given microbe had Continue reading...
Good Report On Materials And Methods
The report presents the results of a microbiological experiment to confirm the hypothesis that as leftover food sits out over time, the number of bacteria in the food will increase. The study was undertaken to indicate the risk of bacterial contamination and the importance of proper storage technique. The study was performed using a liquid food (corn tortilla soup) which was exposed to the external environment at room temperature. The control group in our experiment was the same food stored in a zip lock bag and refrigerated.
The soup was tested over a period of time, which served as Continue reading...
Free Bacteriophage Plaque Assay Report Sample
Microbiology laboratory report
Bacteriophages are intracellular parasitic viruses that infect bacteria to carry out their multiplication. During the lytic infection cycles, phages lyse the host cells forming a clear zone called plaque on the agar media. The experiment is aimed to measure the number of plaques created when the virus T4 infects the host bacteria and their genetic material integrates into the genetic material of the host cell. This happens because the E.coli becomes resistant to T4 bacteriophage. The T4 phage was diluted in a test tube and then E.coli bacteria was added in the tubes. The mixture was poured with Continue reading...
Effect Of UV Light On Microbial Growth Report
There has been use of a broad range of methods for controlling bacterial growth. The specific method employed is based on the kind of bacteria, as well as the nature of the material for which the user is seeking. Therefore, in order to control bacteria that form endospore needs techniques varied from the ones utilized for other cells, while surgical equipment sterilization would need treatments that are different from the ones employed in prevention of infection of an injury. Ultraviolet light, denoted as UV, can be termed as an electromagnetic radiation, which has a wavelength ranging from 100 to Continue reading...
Hand Washing And Bacteria Report Sample
Soap manufacturers develop various products that include conventional soaps and antibacterial soaps to address today’s microbial threats. Antibacterial soaps are developed based on conventional ones with antibacterial agents added to the product. These antibacterial agents must have the ability to kill germs, but should not give adverse effects to human’s skin and general physiology. Scientific approach to investigate the effectiveness of antibacterial soaps begins with the hypothesis that antibacterial soap reduces more bacterial contamination compared to the conventional (non-antibacterial) soap. The two hypotheses are:
- There will be decrease in bacterial growth variables (types, numbers of colonies, Continue reading...
Report On Unknown Lab # 16
The purpose of the lab is to separate characterize and identify microbes from unknown mixed culture using the morphological and biochemical methods.
The process of identifying bacteria is a systematic and careful process which uses various techniques to narrow down the bacteria types which are present in an unknown culture of bacteria. This process produces advantages for many factors of research of microorganisms and assists in the proper treatment of patients (Aneja 10). Several tests were performed to give the fermentation abilities, availability of specific enzymes and specific biochemical reactions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment started off by Continue reading...
Effect Of Adding Yogurt To The Lactic Acid Fermentation Process Of Milk In Terms Report Example
Lactic acid fermentation refers to a biological process where sugars such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose undergo conversion to form cellular energy lactic acid. The process is an anaerobic kind of fermentation reaction and takes place in a number of bacteria as well as in animal cells like the muscle cells (Campbell & Reece, 2005). The application of lactic acid fermentation is broad especially in the food industry (Tempeh, 2008). Some of the bacteria that are involved in the production of lactic acid include pediococcus cerevisiae, leuconostoc mesenteroides, bifidobacterium bifidus, and streptococcus lactis (Tempeh, 2008). The process is Continue reading...
Example Of Chemistry & Microbiology Short Answer Questions Report
This essay is on short description of the following terms atoms, molecular structure, ionic bonding, periodic table, pH, acids, oxidation, antioxidants in food, alkali cleaning agents, salts used in food, plant cells, photosynthesis, micro-organisms in the environment, bacterial morphology, comparative sizes of micro-organisms, factors affecting the growth of bacteria, bacterial spores, biological role of enzymes, catalase, and enzymic browning.
This essay will write short notes on various topics in chemistry as well as in microbiology. Some of the terms in chemistry include atom, molecular structure, periodic table, pH, oxidation, ionic bonding among others. Some of the terms in microbiology Continue reading...
Chemistry Report Examples
1. Eye piece 5.Arm
2. Objective lens 6.Coarse adjustment knob
3. Stage 7.fine adjustment
2. What is the procedure (step by step) which you followed to do gram staining? (20 points)
1. Obtain a tissue sample for the gram stain.
2. Two or three drops of the sample were placed on the glass slide.
3. Use the electric slide warmer, heat the smear. Alternatively, this can be done by quickly passing it over a flame. Although should be very quick to avoid distortion.
4. Add crystal violet to the smear.
5. Rinse off the violet crystal Continue reading...
Chemistry Report Example
The Data Quality Objectives (DQO Process) is a planning process that has been developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This particular planning process is used when environmental information or data is used to make a choice between two specific alternatives or to make a derivation of contamination estimate. The process is also used in the development of acceptance and performance criteria that find use in the clarification of study objectives, defining of appropriate data type and the specification of potential errors of decisions that are then used as the basis for the establishment of the quantity and Continue reading...
Report On The Metabolism Of Paba Para-Aminobenzoic Acid
The Metabolism of (PABA) Para-Amino benzoic Acid
PABA or Para amino benzoic acid is a non proteinous amino acid that occurs naturally. The molecular formula of para- amino benzoic acid is C7H7 NO2; the structure of PABA consists of benzene rings substituted with a carboxyl and an amino group. PABA is a white crystalline molecule that is only sparingly soluble in water. PABA is a very essential nutrient for bacteria PABA functions as an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria
The deficiency of PABA does not cause any deficiency diseases in man. Some bacteria in the intestinal tract can synthesise PABA from Continue reading...
Effect Of Temperature On Amylase Activity Report Examples
Amylase from Bacillus Subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae were studied as representative candidates for bacterial and fungal enzymes, respectively. The activities of these two enzymes were studies comparatively over a period of 10 minutes and at temperatures of 0, 40, 60 and 95°C. The experiment was conducted to find the most effective temperatures for bacterial amylase and fungal amylase to catalyze starch hydrolysis. The data suggest that fungal enzyme was relatively more active, particularly in the first 6 minutes, than the bacterial counterpart at 0°C.
On the other hand, the fungal enzyme activity deteriorated more rapidly than that Continue reading...
Free Report On Experimental
The fundamental objectives of this report are to learn how to:
- handle and care about the microscope
- Identify various parts of the microscope such as the eye piece, arm, coarse adjustment knob, fine adjustment knob, base, nose piece, objective lenses, stage condenser, and Iris diagram.
- Define various terminologies used while using the microscope such as the total magnification, resolving power, working distance, parfocal and real and virtual images.
- And finally to observe stained slides of bacteria or the fungi.
Concerning how to care about the microscope, the following should be taken into consideration: while using Continue reading...
Hospital Acquired Infections: An Action Plan Report
It is estimated that almost two million hospital patients in the United States contract a hospital acquired infection (HAI) every year, which is one out of every twenty patients (“Hand Hygiene Basics.”) These HAIs are responsible for close to 100,000 deaths per year (Anti Microbial Copper.) HAIs also cost the US healthcare system between $4.5–5.7 billion per year (Collins). It is every hospital administrator’s top concern to address this risk to protect their patients.
HAIs are primarily attributed to a small handful of bacteria: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Clostrudium difficille, Psueudonomas Continue reading...
The Transformation Of Bacterial Cells Using Puc18 As A Vector Report Sample
The transformation of bacterial cells using Puc18 plasmid as a vector
In molecular cloning experiments, the DNA to be cloned is obtained from an organism and then broken into smaller fragments through digestion with restriction enzymes. The fragments of restriction enzyme digestion are then ligated /combined with some vector DNA to produce recombinant DNA molecules. These recombinant DNA molecules are then introduced into a host organism. When the host organism replicates, the recombinant molecule is replicated together with it. With time, large populations of transformed cells or clones are generated expressing the genotype and phenotype of the inserted Continue reading...
Example Of Report On The Role Of Bacteria In Health And Disease Of Periodontal Disease
This article provides astonishing findings about the role that bacteria plays in the health of periodontal disease. This article was written by Zhimin Feng and Aaron Weinberg, and it shows the interaction between the bacteria and human tooth. According to this article, bacteria and eukaryotic cells have a complex in interaction that involves a complex process. This process is meant to allow human beings live in harmony with bacteria that are within them. Periodontal diseases according to the article involve a series of infections on the periodontal tissues. This is a serious condition, and if not treated in early Continue reading...
Example Of Biology Report
Effectiveness and action of different antibiotics on bacterial cells
Antibiotics are used to kill microorganism or inhibit their ability to multiply (DIANE Publishing Company 73). Different antibiotics kill bacteria and other microorganisms with varied effectiveness. A simple mechanism of determining the effectiveness and action of antibiotics on bacteria is using the zone of inhibition method (DIANE Publishing Company 112). This experiment requires application of an antibiotic chemical to an inoculated plate. The culture in which bacteria are to grow and reproduce is then incubated after which observations are made to identify the zone of inhibition. A clear zone on the plate is an indication that the bacterial Continue reading...
Collection, Isolation And Identification Of Bacillus Subtilis From Soil Report Examples
Bacillus Subtilis are the organisms that are aerobic, Gram Positive, spore-forming belonging to the Bacillus genus. The organisms are together with other species that are closely related play a crucial role in disease, food poisoning as well as food spoilage. Lack of methods that are standardized for the identification of the organisms whether coming from the food or environment has made the tests to be difficult. Use of morphological as well as physiological tests have offered the best ways to identify organisms in the laboratory although there are inconsistent and lack of reliance in these methods.
Identification of an Continue reading...
Comparison Of The Efficiency Of Ajax And Hand Sanitizer Report
In the experiment, the main objective was to compare the efficiency of two treatments in terms of Ajax and Hand sanitizer. The class was divided in two groups and Group A performed hand washing with Ajax while Group B used the hand sanitizer as hand washing agent. Cultures of the dominant hand by imprint method using Petri dish agar were done on each subject before and after the application of hand washing agents. The inoculated agar Petri dishes were incubated for a week at 37°C. Colony counts of the organisms identified were made. The mean change in Continue reading...
Report On Types Of Bacteria
The bacterial negative gram bacilli group Enterobacterriaceae have both motile and non-mitole relationships with peritrichouse flagella. Both types of bacteria, however, have the ability to fermet glucose and get nitrite from nitrates, as well as produce gas. They are a common find in greenhouses, and there are hundreds of species of this microorganism, including Proteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella Enterobacter, pneomoniae, etc. The pathogenic types of this bacteria have the ability to bring about diseases in animals and humans.
In this test, two varying types of Enterobacteriaceae will be identified (Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. This will be Continue reading...
Report On Nitrogen And Copper Doped Solar Light Active TiO2 Photocatalysts For Water Decontamination
NITROGEN AND COPPER DOPED SOLAR LIGHT ACTIVE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS FOR WATER DECONTAMINATION
A new category of photocatalytic coating that can degrade chemical as well as bacterial contaminants under visible sunlight wavelengths was generated by the deposition of a stable photocatalytic TiO2 film over the internal lumen of glass bottles by means of a sol–gel technique. Such a coating was produced either in doped or undoped form. This coating used copper and/ or nitrogen for producing visible light-active TiO2 films that were normalized or annealed at 600 ◦C and were characterized by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degradation of methylene blue was seen to accelerate with doped and undoped Continue reading...
Example Of Nursing Practical Written Report-Microbiology Report
Introduction and Background
In assessing the impact of microbes in the New South Wales (NSW) health system, it was discovered after laboratory testing evaluating Part A and B categories different types of colonies were discovered, for laboratory 1 evaluations. In laboratory 11specimens used in this experiment were blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid; sputum, swabs from and
Bacteria colony morphology:-. E Coli. This bacterium appeared to be creamy, shinny and rose to a level of 2-3 mm. M Luteus. This one was yellow shinny circular and rose to 1-2 mm. Continue reading...
Report On The Bergeys Manual
This manual identifies bacterium according to their functional attribute as well as according to their structure and arranging them according to a certain specific familial arrangement (University of Idaho 1). For instance, in this study and using Bergey’s Manual, we are supposed to identify the species and genus of a sample of bacteria. By using the Bergy’s manual and through identifying the bacterium according to their functional attribute as well as according to their structure and arranging them according to a certain specific familial arrangement; the following is derived Continue reading...
Good Report On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
The process of identifying an organism involves the determination of where an isolate or an organism needs to be placed within a group of organisms that are already known. The process is usually done to conform to a given scheme of classification. Most of the microorganisms that may be found in the environment require to be identified aiming at identifying the different species that may be found in a given environment. The identification enables physicists and health workers to associated different sources with different organisms especially those that cause diseases. Organism classification may also help in the diagnosis of Continue reading...
Free Report On The Article Report And Relationship With Microbiology Class
The fight against pathogenenic microorganisms to achieve a better life has been a continuous process. Rapid changes are seen as researches are embarking upon various forms of studies but there are certain discoveries that always seem greater. The New York Times published an article, which focus on the advancement in microbe genome sequencing technology. The article title "The new generation of microbe hunters" explored the challenges, the need, and future benefits of the new technology.
This publication provides a summary of some medic's perception and discussion of the current rapid infective process of microbes on human health in a Continue reading...
Lab Discussion/analysis Kla Microbes And Man 2011 Report Examples
Land and sea polluted with petroleum-based synthetic and natural substances have led to the development of techniques using biological organisms for clean-up. The technique is called bioremediation. “Bio” refers to biology and “remediation” to clean-up. The types of microorganisms used are bacteria fungi and actinomycetes. Bacteria can be used for bioremediation under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Actinomycetes are generally anaerobic and grow from spores forming filaments and branches. The applications and environment for optimum bioremediation varies depending on the pollutant and the biological organisms. Different combinations work better depending on the temperature, substrata and other environmental variables. The goal Continue reading...
Extraction Of Plasmid DNA Using Alkaline Lysis Method And Analysis By Agarose Gel Report
A plasmid DNA is an extra-small circular structure commonly found in bacteria which is capable of replicating by itself in the cell. These are used in genetic engineering as vehicles to carry and make copies of a particular gene which can produce desirable effect. In this report, we discuss the isolation and purification of DNA fromEGFP-LC3 plasmidusing a modified alkaline lysis method and QIAprep spin columns. The concentration of the isolated EGFP-LC3 plasmid DNA was found to be 82.868µg/ml. The ratio of ODs taken at A260nm/A280nm was found to be 5.314 which could be because improper washing step Continue reading...
Disorders Of The Immune System Reports Examples
The immunological disorders in an individual can occur due to three different reasons. This includes immunological diseases in an immunocompromised individual, or “autoimmune diseases”, or finally an immunological hypersensitivity that can lead to tissue damage.
Immunodeficiency diseases occur due to malfunctioning of the organs or cells in an individual. They are further classified as primary immunodeficiency (PID) and secondary immunodeficiency (SID).
Primary immunodeficiency disease
They occur when there is a direct defect in the immune system. They are further classified into eight groups depending upon the site of the defect.
Combined T and B deficiencies. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is an excellent Continue reading...
Report on The Effect Of Light Intensity On Oxygen Production
The purpose of our experiment was to visualize the effect of light intensity on oxygen production. In the capacity of a test subject we used algal cultures. For these researches we used the Winkler method of titration. Our experiment results showed that there is an effect of light intensity on oxygen production. Our research has a great significance for agriculture, biochemistry and biophysics. Continue reading...
Concept Analysis: Adaptation Reports Examples
Adaptation refers to a general process used by people, animals, plants, and the biological organisms living in the atmosphere. As change in nature is a constant process, one must learn to adapt to the change of the environment in order for survival. Adaptation to change is essential to the evolution of life. The evolution is an ever-going process that brings changes within the environment. From the moment we are conceived and take birth in this world, we are constantly adapting to certain forms of evolution (birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and middle aged adulthood) and advancing through Continue reading...
Identification Of Unknown Organism Using Biochemical Tests Report
Materials and Methods
Gram Stain: the test was done to differentiate Gram-positive from Gram-negative organisms. A drop of the unknown 300 was suspended on a slide and the culture spread to an oven thin film. The culture was air dried and fixed over a gentle flame. Crystal violet stain was added over the culture and allowed to stand for 60 seconds. The stain was poured off and rinsed gently. Iodine solution was added on the smear, allowed to stand for 60 seconds and the stain poured off. The slide was rinsed with running water, and a few drops of Continue reading...
Thermal Inactivation Of Bacterial Endospores Reports Examples
Pressure has over the time has been an important aspect in the thermal sterlialization of food . This is an alternative thermal process of food preservation which is highly effective(PATS) .The (PAT) is important in that it releases the diplicinic acid also known as the (DPA) from the individual endospores. It also rehydrates the core of the endospores and allows the process of the spore inactivation. A good combination can include 200 to 800 mpa which will also be at one hundred and twenty degrees, this combination can effectively eliminate any resistant spores of the organism Clostridium Botulinum. At Continue reading...
Report On Group Work Project
Group work project
Group discussions are essential in any school setup since it aids students to grasp the content better. My participation in group work made me understand so many things about post-meningitic hearing loss management. Although I had read and done a lot of research in this field, I still did not have the full facts about this condition. One aspect, which I fully grasped during the group work, was the nature and causes of this condition. Although I had some idea on the possible causes and symptoms of the condition, I Continue reading...
Genetically Modified Crops Are An Essential Part Of The Future Reports Examples
IntroductionFood consumption is one of the major requirements for humans; people eat to live with at least majority of people been blessed with a meal each day, whereas others may afford three or more. People are independent of culture and customs, eating remains a key facet in different celebrations all over the world among and within friends and families. Moreover, people wish to have a nutritious and healthy meal but the problem is “The safety of the food people consume.”The improvement of livestock and plants for the production of food and the use of diverse conservation skills have Continue reading...
Fundamentals Of Beer And Hop Chemistry(Photochem) Report Example
In this paper, I review the article Fundamentals of Beer and Hop Chemistry, authored by Keukeliere, D. (2010).
In his article, Keukeliere (2010) begins by indicating that beer, an aqueous fermented drink, is based on starch, but flavored by hops. Keukelier (2010) notes that, barley, and most specifically barley malt, is the main body of beer. In order to produce one liter of beer, a few hundred grams of barley malt are needed. However, Keukeliere (2010) indicates that in the absence of barley malt, starch-rich adjuncts such as wheat, corn or rice can be used.
Keukeliere (2010) notifies us Continue reading...
Biogasin Codo For A Cleaner Future Report Examples
EWB Challenge 2014Plan Timor Leste
Sustainable Engineering Practice
South Australian Institute of Business and Technology
This report provides details on the project that aims at facilitating for the creation of an anaerobic/biogas digester in in Codo town. This is a small town that is situated at Lautern District in East Timor, and it has a population of approximately 500 people. This town lacks a system that can allow them to dispose and manage their waste in an effective manner. They bury their waste underground, and they use burning wood to serve as a means of cooking. The report will suggest various ways Continue reading...